Summoning training can become very expensive and tedious, but familiars at higher levels make Summoning a rewarding skill. F2P Players can gain experience up to level 5 and continue to collect gold charms after level 5, which may be useful if you intend on becoming P2P eventually. All F2P parts of this guide will be shown with "(F2P)" beside it.
- 1 Useful items
- 2 Starting (F2P)
- 3 Pouches (F2P)
- 4 Spirit shards
- 5 Obtaining charms (P2P)
- 6 How many spirit shards do I buy?
- 7 How to make pouches
- 8 Which pouches to make (Levelling techniques)
- 8.1 Perspective one: maximising experience per charm considering only reasonable cost per pouch
- 8.2 Perspective two: Opportunity costs of similar pouches
- 8.2.1 Similar pouches using blue charms
- 8.2.2 Similar pouches using crimson charms
- 8.2.3 Similar pouches using green charms
- 8.2.4 Similar pouches using gold charms
- 8.2.5 Further calculations
- 8.2.6 Further limitations
- 8.2.7 Example: best pouches if one accepts an implied relative tradeoff of 20 coins per experience point
- 9 What to do with the pouches
- 10 Alternative methods of gaining experience
- 11 Other important information
- 12 Trivia
- 13 See also
Useful items[edit | edit source]
Spirit gems[edit | edit source]
Spirit gems can be used to save charms while infusing pouches. They can be obtained as a rare drop from many monsters or from Treasure Hunter or from gem rocks in Prifddinas. Depending on the tier of the gem, each gem has a certain chance of saving a charm while consuming a charge. After a certain number of charms are saved, the gem will be destroyed.
These gems prove to be very useful especially for blue charms as they are usually the hardest to obtain. For example, a spirit onyx has a 60% chance to save a charm when worn up to 60 times before it disintegrates, therefore saving more charms to use later.
Shaman's outfit[edit | edit source]
The Shaman's outfit is acquired via Treasure Hunter or Familiarisation. Each piece grants 1% bonus Summoning experience when worn. When all of the pieces of the set are worn, a 1% set bonus is added, providing a total bonus of 6%. Pieces of the outfit were previously created from items that could be won from the Squeal of Fortune initially.
Summoning cape perk[edit | edit source]
Summoning focus[edit | edit source]
A Summoning focus is a tradeable, stackable item that grants extra experience when creating pouches. It gives an extra 20% Summoning experience when making pouches at an obelisk. One focus is needed for each pouch made. They are currently worth 6,927 each.
Starting (F2P)[edit | edit source]
To begin training the Summoning skill, players may complete Wolf Whistle (not required anymore), which will grant 276 experience to Summoning (increasing the player's level to 4), as well as 275 gold charms (enough for level 16, or 5 on F2P). After that you will have to collect your own charms. Look below for information on how to do that.
F2P players can collect additional gold charms from collecting one free sample from Pikkupstix's store or by killing troll brutes and troll chuckers in Burthorpe.
Pouches (F2P)[edit | edit source]
The only viable way of training Summoning is to create Summoning pouches. To begin making a Summoning pouch, the following are required:
- An empty pouch, which can be bought from Pikkupstix for 1 gp each. (Not required for Summoning within Daemonheim)
- A quantity of charms, which must be collected by the player through monster killing and other methods. Good ways to do this are listed below.
- A large number of spirit shards, which can be bought from Pikkupstix for 25 coins each or you can buy a set of 5,000 for 125,000. (Not required for Summoning within Daemonheim), spirit shards can also be bought at the Grand Exchange. Though the guide price is not always 25, it is rare that anyone will sell it for anything less than that. On the other hand, spirit shards can be sold by pet store owners (such as the one in Taverley) in arbitrarily large amounts, so spirit shards are essentially equivalent to 25 coins.
- A tertiary ingredient which is specific to the creature you are creating, similar to the secondary ingredients used in Herblore.
Use the attuned crystal teleport seed and teleport to Amlodd district, followed by a short run to the Summoning obelisk, then teleport to Trahaearn district to re-supply with bank preset and Beast of Burden (BoB) set-up. Exchange pouches for shards with Lord Amlodd if you feel like it.
Spirit shards[edit | edit source]
With the use of Bogrog or Lord Amlodd the pouches you make can be turned back into shards; the number of shards returned to you is 70% of the pouch cost. With this in mind, you can drastically reduce the number of shards you have to originally buy by continually converting the pouches you make back into shards.
Obtaining charms (P2P)[edit | edit source]
How many spirit shards do I buy?[edit | edit source]
Since spirit shards can be sold back for the same price they were purchased for at either a Summoning shop or the Taverley pet shop owner (who will buy shards in quantities larger than 500), it is simpler to take an educated guess at how many shards you'll need, and sell back any extras.
With the use of Bogrog in Gu'Tanoth, you can turn the pouches you make back into spirit shards; the amount of shards you get is usually 70% of the required shard number for the pouch. Utilising this, the number of shards you need to initially buy can be drastically reduced, however the effectiveness of this varies greatly with number of shards you initially have and the number of times you are willing to exchange your pouches. Also, some pouches may be worth more if sold rather than converted. See Calculators/Shard swap.
The formula which calculates the effective number of shards you own is as follows
- S = initial amount of shards
- n = number of trips done to Bogrog
- i = parameter
The calculator below can be used for this summation for any integer S, 0 ≤ S ≤ 2,147,483,647 and any integer N, 1 ≤ N ≤ 100:
template = Calculator:Bogrog shards form = CalcForm result = CalcResult param = S|Initial shards|0|int param = N|Trips to Bogrog|1|int
However, it becomes tedious to recalculate this continuously to find the required number of shards you need initially. It is much easier to first decide how many trips to Bogrog you are willing to do as the amount of trips dictates what percentage increase you will ultimately get (regardless of initial count). The increases can be seen below:
|Trips||Percentage Increase||Divide by|
The maximum possible number to divide by is 3 and a third (3.33). As shown in the table, to get close to this number requires many trips.
Let's say you needed 55,000 shards to attain a certain level, the first thing you do need to decide upon is how many times you would be willing to visit Bogrog which will usually be 10 times, any more than this the gain in shards is minimal; for example doing 20 trips instead of 10 when having an initial starting shard count of 100,000 only yields an extra 6,405 shards. The amount of trips you are willing to do is something you have to decide.
At 10 trips, the increase is 227% so the effective amount will be 327% of the initial amount, or 3.27 times the initial amount. You then divide 55,000 by 3.27 to get 16,820 (rounded up). Therefore, to effectively have 55,000 shards whilst willing to do 10 trips to Bogrog you only initially need to have 16,820 spirit shards.
Calculations can conveniently be performed with the software available on one's computer.
How to make pouches[edit | edit source]
When making pouches, you should have the charms you are using, empty pouches, spirit shards, and 25 of the tertiary ingredient. Because these methods require a lot of running, you may want to have any weight reducing equipment you own equipped or use a spirit terrorbird for infinite run.
The simplest method consists of running between a bank and a summoning obelisk. The obelisks closest to a bank are in Taverley, Menaphos Merchant district (Menaphos is slightly closer and easier to reach), and in the Amlodd District in Prifddinas. The Taverley and Prifddinas bank locations are near a house portal, so you could set your house to be in Taverley or Prifddinas and use a house teleport to shorten your trips.
Methods using special teleports[edit | edit source]
Above level 57 Summoning, you can use a spirit kyatt to teleport near the Piscatoris summoning obelisk, and use a Tokkul-Zo or rings of duelling to bank. Using this method it is possible to make over 2700 pouches an hour, making it one of the fastest ways to train summoning.
Below level 57 Summoning, you can use phoenix lair teleports and run north-east to the Piscatoris obelisk.
Should the player not wish to spend money on kyatt pouches, they can use the nature grotto in Mort Myre Swamp. This method requires a Tokkul-Zo, access to the fairy ring network, and the Mort Myre shortcut unlocked from Temple Trekking (total follower level 100). Start at the TzHaar Fight Cave bank, and use the fairy ring to Canifis (code CKS). Run south to gate and right-click: 'Quick travel gate' for shortcut to the Nature Spirit grotto. Make the pouches in the grotto, and bank using the Tokkul-Zo. This method is slower than using a spirit kyatt, but faster than running to Pikkupstix's house in Taverley.
It is also possible to use the balloon transport system to make pouches in Taverley. Equip a ring of duelling and have one log in your inventory, take a balloon to Taverley, make pouches, then teleport to the bank at Castle Wars.
Methods using Beasts of Burden[edit | edit source]
With a great deal of effort and several requirements, the Spirit Kyatt method can be surpassed by normal bank running with Beasts of Burden. There is a specific order of actions needed when using Beasts of burden to make pouches. To set up, the stack of pouches, charms, and shards should be the last three items in the inventory. This method does not work if they are the first three items, for example. Also, the BOB's interface should be open on the "inventory" view, preferably separate from both the player's inventory interface and whatever teleport interface is needed. Here is the procedure for each trip.
- Retrieve fill one's inventory and BOB's inventory with the tertiary ingredients.
- Run to the obelisk.
- Drop a number of tertiary items from ones inventory which is at least as large as the BOB's capacity. (This is not possible with a Pack yak or Pack mammoth, and indeed, one may only wish to use the first 25 slots of those BOBs.) Dropping should be performed with the action bar. Beware that some tertiary ingredients do not have "Drop" as their default option on the action bar. For such items, one must drop them by moving the action bar near the bottom of the client (but not snapped to the bottom) so that dropping can be achieved by alternating left and right clicks without moving the mouse.
- Retrieve all items from the BOB by clicking the appropriate button on the interface. (This takes a single click. If it does not, you have not done this step efficiently.)
- Click the obelisk to make the first batch of pouches.
- Deposit all items to the BOB by clicking the appropriate button on the interface. (This takes a single click. If it does not, you have not done this step efficiently. This requires charms, shards, and pouches to not be among the first several spots in the inventory. These three stacks might as well be last.)
- Pick up all of the dropped tertiary ingredients. This should be performed using Area loot so that picking up only takes one click and one keystroke.
- Make the second batch of pouches.
- Restock, possibly using a bank teleport.
- Use the Surge ability on straightaways. For example, there is a straightaway north of the Ithell bank chest on the way to the Amlodd obelisk.
- Use the Mobile perk.
- With tertiary ingredients whose default option (on the Action bar) is "Drop," you can drag the item to multiple slots and bind them to nearby keys on the keyboard such as "Z, X, C" on a QWERTY keyboard. It is thus possible to drop 25 items in 2 game ticks.
- Use a bank preset which is configured to load the BOB at the same time.
- The combination of an Attuned crystal teleport seed and a fast bank teleport may improve this method.
- Swapping for shards with Amlodd can substitute for the complex dropping procedure. It is recommended to have completed the Hard Tirannwn achievements. Of course, this is a very infeasible option for pouches such as the Spirit terrorbird pouch because their Grand Exchange value is far above their shard-return value.
This is a somewhat absurd procedure that is easy to mess up, but it can be significantly productive. With a War tortoise, Surge, "Drop-default" tertiaries, bank presets, no Mobile perk, and no Summoning focuses at the Amlodd district, 3400 pouches per hour is possible (but quite challenging). With a Pack Yak and the Mobile perk, 4200 pouches per hour may be possible. This method may also provide a small speedup below level 57 Summoning by using the Bull ant or Spirit terrorbird familiars.
Which pouches to make (Levelling techniques)[edit | edit source]
Perspective one: maximising experience per charm considering only reasonable cost per pouch[edit | edit source]
In this subsection, we provide the pouches that maximise experience per charm using only tradeable tertiary ingredients and within reasonable cost. However, it also includes pouches created with obsidian charms, which are untradeable.
The number in parentheses is the number of pouches it takes for the experience between those levels. However, the number of pouches required between each level can be reduced by roughly 17% by using Summoning focuses. If in your inventory while making pouches, the focuses will be consumed and grant an additional 20% bonus experience. One focus is needed for each pouch.
- These are only recommendations, you should be very careful when deciding what pouches to make for summoning, as prices change, and some pouches may only be good to make at certain times.
- If you can, save blue charms until levels 89-90 and make geyser titans, since they give the most experience per blue charm.
- Some people choose to stop using gold charms at around level 66 because the experience rate is around 230,000-240,000 experience per hour which makes it expensive for the experience gained and not worth the time.
- Some people choose to stop using green charms at around level 80 because the experience rate varies from 370,000-420,000 experience per hour which is expensive for the experience gained and not worth the time.
- If players have the right Divination levels, they can transmute lower-tier charms to higher ones. This is generally not recommended at a lower level, but at higher levels, when low-tier charms give only a small amount of xp/pouch, it can be worth it to transmute them to a higher tier. Players can then transmute the charm again for an even better charm.
- Wolpertinger pouches require two tertiary ingredients, wolf bones and raw rabbit, which results in roughly half the xp/hr when compared to swamp titans. You will need to decide whether the extra experience granted and cheaper tertiary ingredients used when making wolpertingers over swamp titans are worth the extra time.
Perspective two: Opportunity costs of similar pouches[edit | edit source]
This subsection presents a counterpoint to the previous section and argues that one should not always make the pouch that maximises experience per charm. Instead, Sacrificing a somewhat small amount of experience per charm in favour of slightly higher cost-effectiveness can imply an unexpectedly large savings of coins per experience point. This is a rather subtle consideration and has its share of limitations, as does the perspective in the previous subsection. Again, we ignore pouches that use untradeable ingredients for simplicity, but in practice, these pouches can make a difference in training.
Similar pouches using blue charms[edit | edit source]
We now compare two pouches with similar levels that use the same charm and in which all components are tradeable. For example, consider the Rune minotaur versus the Geyser titan. Regardless of any spirit gem used, they use the same number of blue charms on average (1.0 to 0.4), so the opportunity cost of obtaining blue charms can be cancelled out, simplifying calculations. Additionally, the opportunity cost of making the two pouches is the same, so that can also be cancelled out.
Ignoring experience-boosting items, making a Geyser titan always grants 26.4 more Summoning experience. Making a Geyser titan costs -8,992 (a negative number denotes a loss), and making a Rune minotaur costs -1,924. Thus choosing to make a Geyser titan instead of a Rune minotaur costs the difference: -7,068, and the price per experience point is this divided by 26.4, or -267.73 per experience point.
Here is the central concept. It is reasonable that in a vacuum, one can accept the cost of making Rune minotaurs of -2.77 per experience point AND also the cost of making Geyser titans of -11.48 per experience point. However, because both pouches are options, one should only prefer Geyser titans over Rune minotaurs if one can accept a pure tradeoff of -267.73 per experience point. At current market prices, this is a rather expensive rate that many people would not accept if they realised it. If not, then one should always make Rune minotaurs over Geyser titans.
A geyser titan has a higher level requirement, so this comparison is always valid. This is a pure, instantaneous tradeoff of experience versus coins which does not involve time. This is because the time-opportunity cost involved with gathering blue charms and making pouches can be cancelled out for this computation. On the other hand, this computation ignores the considerations of liquidity and transaction costs when buying items. This computation also ignores that when Summoning, many players only have a level goal in mind, rather than a charm budget. Thus one may dislike charm-gathering so much that the incredibly high price of about -267.73 experience is acceptable.
Following are similar computations for the other charms.
Similar pouches using crimson charms[edit | edit source]
For crimson charms, Pack mammoths are the clear best pouch to make, but they require 99 Summoning and may be hard to trade. Further calculations show that pack yaks are usually the clear second-best pouch to make, but they require level 96 Summoning. Further calculations show that the next-best pouches to make (from the perspective in this section) are the Brawler/Deacon demons, then Granite lobsters, then Smoke devils, then Bloated leeches and finally Pyrelords. Other pouches may give more experience but are far outclassed by the next-highest pouch in the aforementioned list from the point of view of relative opportunity cost.
Similar pouches using green charms[edit | edit source]
For green charms, one may find that Fruit bat pouches are actually preferable to Unicorn stallion pouches. This is because the implied cost per experience of preferring Unicorn stallion pouches over Fruit bat pouches must be -32.95 per experience point.
Similar pouches using gold charms[edit | edit source]
For gold charms, if one uses them at all, one may find that Spirit terrorbirds are actually preferable to Barker toads. This is because the implied cost per experience of preferring Barker toads over Spirit terrorbirds must be -12.63 per experience point.
Further calculations[edit | edit source]
This article has omitted further comparisons such as Fire titans versus Rune minotaurs, etc. One will find that the implied cost to prefer Rune minotaurs over Fire titans is very large. This analysis easily extends to using Summoning focuses. Assuming that one uses Summoning focuses for two comparable pouches, the cost of using the focus is the same for each option, so its cost can be cancelled out as before. The only difference is that now, both options have their experience reward multiplied by 1.2, so the implied relative tradeoff is multiplied by exactly 5/6 or about 0.833.
Further limitations[edit | edit source]
- These calculations are somewhat sensitive to small price changes. For example, a drop in the price of Water talismans by 2000 coins, or about 40 percent, changes the implied relative tradeoff rate to -53.15, and perhaps many players would accept this new tradeoff.
- This method cannot be used to compare pouches used made with different charms.
- This method also does not apply to pouches with a single nontradeable component.
- This method cannot compare pouches that use two tertiary ingredients (such as Wolpertingers) with pouches which use only one tertiary ingredient (such as Swamp titans).
- Often, when comparing two (comparable) pouches in this way, the higher-level pouch will be preferable because it might, for example, imply a relative cost of 5 coins per experience point, or maybe even a "negative cost" per point. Of course, this does not mean that one should always prefer to make the higher-level pouch because if ones current Summoning level is in between the two required levels, then one does not have any choice. However, this may serve as a strong incentive to reach the higher level without using any of that charm.
Example: best pouches if one accepts an implied relative tradeoff of 20 coins per experience point[edit | edit source]
The claims in this section are sensitive to price changes, so they can be out of date. This section does consider Summoning focuses. Their use can significantly change the following lists.
For gold charms, the only acceptable pouches are the Dreadfowl, Spirit spider, and Spirit terrorbird. All other pouches are unacceptable because the next-highest pouch in the aforementioned list yields an implied relative tradeoff of over 20 coins per experience point (and far more than 20 coins in some cases).
For green charms, the only acceptable pouches are the Desert wyrm, Compost mound, Beaver, Macaw, Ibis (Bunyip are barely worse than Ibises, subject to price changes), and Fruit bat. All other pouches are unacceptable. The fruit bat is far superior to the Bunyip and only requires one higher level.
For crimson charms, the only acceptable pouches are the Spirit scorpion, Vampyre bat (barely not Honey badger), Pyrelord, Bloated leech, Smoke devil, Granite lobster, the cheaper of Brawler/Deacon demon (barely not Spirit dagannoth), Wolpertinger, Pack yak, and Pack mammoth.
For blue charms, the only acceptable pouches are the Albino rat, Bronze minotaur, Iron minotaur, Spirit jelly (barely not Steel minotaur), Karamthulhu overlord, Mithril minotaur, Adamant minotaur, Rune Minotaur, and Fire titan.
What to do with the pouches[edit | edit source]
Some options only work well with some pouches, some only work well depending on prices. You should analyse the data and figure out what is the best option for you.
|Sell to Grand Exchange.||Works for almost every pouch and will generally get a fair price.||Sometimes you may be forced to wait for pouches to sell.|
|Trade to Bogrog for spirit shards. (P2P)||Can sometimes save you money over the Grand Exchange.||Needs a higher level than what is required to make the pouch.|
|Cast the High Level Alchemy spell on them.||Can be a good way to train Magic cheaply.||* Requires more effort and time that you can spend training Summoning.
|Use the pouches for skilling or combat.||Often this will be a great way to make lots of money off training Summoning.||* Takes a long time to pay out and will require a lot more capital invested in Summoning.
|Make summoning scrolls from the pouches.||You gain a slight bit more experience/charm. In many cases the given scrolls will also be worth slightly more than the pouches.||The extra time required to turn pouches into scrolls may not be worth the trivially small extra amount of experience.|
Alternative methods of gaining experience[edit | edit source]
Using levelling methods that do not require charms, allows players to save the most valuable ones for later use in higher level familiars.
Distractions and Diversions[edit | edit source]
Players may complete certain activities to receive Summoning experience, including:
Completing quests[edit | edit source]
Main article: Quest experience rewards - Summoning
Some quests grant Summoning experience. Refer to the main article for more details.
Other important information[edit | edit source]
- Why aren't arctic bears listed?
- Arctic bears only give slightly more experience per pouch than barker toads, but they cost much more. Also, their secondary ingredient has a very low buy limit so it can be difficult to stock up on.
- Why aren't any abyssal pouches listed?
- They are usually difficult to gather but because the Abyss is a great spot for magic and range trainers, it is possible to pick up these charms as they drop two at a time very commonly. It is not recommended however to make these pouches as a primary method due to the gathering time.
- Why aren't talon beasts listed?
- Although the talon beast pouch is the single pouch that give the most experience in game, in order to make talon beast pouches, talon beast charms are needed. The only way to obtain these charms is to play Temple Trekking activity over and over again in hope to encounter nail beasts which drops them. If players have talon beast charms then it is recommended that they use them, but talon beast charms usually take more effort to obtain than any other charm in-game, therefore it is not recommended to list talon beast pouches as your only option to gain experience.
- Why does it say to wait so long before using blue charms?
- Blue charms give lots of experience, and as it is easy to level with the other charms at first, it is a waste to use your blue charms, when you could gain way more experience in the long run by using them at higher levels.
- Why should gold charms be saved from levels 28-51?
- Why should spirit larupias not be made when they are essentially the same as spirit graahks and spirit kyatts?
- Spirit larupias are in lower demand, because they are not quite as useful, so it is better to make the other ones. Also, spirit kyatts can be used in the Piscatoris method of making pouches.
- Why should ice titans not be made when they are essentially the same as fire titans and moss titans?
- What's the fastest way to make pouches? Where's the closest bank?
- As of the Temple Trekking update, a fast method is using the Nature Grotto obelisk via the Mort Myre gate shortcut reward from Temple Trekking. This will bring you right outside the Nature Grotto which is steps away from the obelisk inside. To bank, use an amulet of glory to Edgeville, and then use a ring of slaying to the Fremennik Slayer Dungeon to gain access to the fairy ring network, or simply use the Tokkul-Zo to teleport to the Fight Caves to both bank and access the fairy rings. Use fairy ring code CKS to teleport you a few steps north of the Mort Myre gate.
- The fastest way to make pouches is to trade noted ingredients with Pikkupstix in Taverley, buy them back, make pouches and sell them to Pikkupstix, repeating the process until the charm supply is over. Despite being the quickest method for creating pouches, with a usage rate of 14,000-16,000 charms per hour at full concentration, it is also a very expensive method and should only be used by players with a considerable amount of coins.
- (57 Summoning required) - Another method is to summon your spirit kyatt, click on your familiar, and use the Teleport option, this should take you only a few steps below a trapdoor, where a summoning obelisk is located for making pouches. Go down the trapdoor, and create familiar pouches. Then teleport to a bank with one of the following, bank your pouches, and repeat.
- An alternative to using the spirit kyatt is to use fairy ring code AKQ and the bank in Zanaris or Edgeville (fairy ring code DKR).
- (If you have completed Swan Song) - Either teleport to the Phoenix Lair by using a Phoenix lair teleport scroll or run to the Piscatoris Fishing Colony. Withdraw all of your supplies (pouches, spirit shards, etc.) from your bank from Arnold Lydspor and run south until you reach the colony gate. Climb through the hole and run south-east to the Summoning obelisk (marked by the Summoning icon). Climb down the trapdoor, make your pouches and/or, scrolls, repeat.
- When the Voice of Seren is active in the Amlodd Clan area in Prifddinas, you receive 120% (20% extra) experience for making pouches and scrolls at the obelisk there. This obelisk is very close to the Ithell Clan bank, and even closer to the Amlodd teleport of the crystal teleport seed or its attuned variant (which can also be used to teleport directly back to a bank with the Trahaearn or Ithell teleports).
Trivia[edit | edit source]
- After reaching level 17 it is theoretically possible to get to any level (even level 99) in a single trip by making either spirit mosquito pouches or giant chinchompa pouches at the Feldip Hills obelisk. Both of these familiars require a stackable tertiary ingredient, allowing a player to collect all the required charms and seconds for any level within a single inventory. While technically possible, it requires immense amounts of preparation and time (includes getting all the blue charms, and buying a maximum of 10,000 pouches at a time from the Grand Exchange), and you would have to drop all made pouches or turn them into scrolls, and does not have much of a benefit, so it is not suggested. The player could also do this method by buying mithril seeds, picking the flowers and making praying mantis pouches. For the above to work, one must also make the pouches into scrolls or swap them for shards (with the required level), otherwise the inventory would fill up from pouches.
- A way to avoid all the methods above is to have all the charms, pouches, shards, and noted secondary items at hand. Friends or people could trade you un-noted secondary items for noted items, although such an occurrence without reward is highly unlikely.
See also[edit | edit source]