Skeleton fremennik

From the RuneScape Wiki, the wiki for all things RuneScape
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Skeleton (disambiguation).

Skeleton fremenniks are strong versions of regular skeletons in the Brine Rat Cavern. They are led by Ulfric.

Drops[edit | edit source]

100% drops[edit | edit source]

Item Members Quantity Rarity GE price High Alch
Bones.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Bones with rarity Always in quantity 1BonesF2P icon.png1Always5450
Key (Olaf's Quest, cross).png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Key (Olaf's Quest, cross) with rarity Always in quantity 1Key (Olaf's Quest, cross) (m)P2P icon.png1Always[d 1]Not soldNot alchemisable
Key (Olaf's Quest, square).png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Key (Olaf's Quest, square) with rarity Always in quantity 1Key (Olaf's Quest, square) (m)P2P icon.png1Always[d 1]Not soldNot alchemisable
Key (Olaf's Quest, star).png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Key (Olaf's Quest, star) with rarity Always in quantity 1Key (Olaf's Quest, star) (m)P2P icon.png1Always[d 1]Not soldNot alchemisable
Key (Olaf's Quest, triangle).png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Key (Olaf's Quest, triangle) with rarity Always in quantity 1Key (Olaf's Quest, triangle) (m)P2P icon.png1Always[d 1]Not soldNot alchemisable
Key (Olaf's Quest, hexagon).png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Key (Olaf's Quest, hexagon) with rarity Always in quantity 1Key (Olaf's Quest, hexagon) (m)P2P icon.png1Always[d 1]Not soldNot alchemisable
  1. ^ a b c d e Only dropped if not already possessed.

Main drop[edit | edit source]

Item Members Quantity Rarity GE price High Alch
Guam seed.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Guam seed with rarity Uncommon in quantity 1Guam seed (m)P2P icon.png1Uncommon2182
Marrentill seed.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Marrentill seed with rarity Uncommon in quantity 1Marrentill seed (m)P2P icon.png1Uncommon1973
Tarromin seed.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Tarromin seed with rarity Uncommon in quantity 1Tarromin seed (m)P2P icon.png1Uncommon2204
Harralander seed.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Harralander seed with rarity Uncommon in quantity 1Harralander seed (m)P2P icon.png1Uncommon2307
Toadflax seed.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Toadflax seed with rarity Rare in quantity 1Toadflax seed (m)P2P icon.png1Rare5,56720
Spirit weed seed.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Spirit weed seed with rarity Rare in quantity 1Spirit weed seed (m)P2P icon.png1Rare48,11410
Ranarr seed.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Ranarr seed with rarity Rare in quantity 1Ranarr seed (m)P2P icon.png1Rare1,63611
Irit seed.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Irit seed with rarity Rare in quantity 1Irit seed (m)P2P icon.png1Rare89338
Avantoe seed.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Avantoe seed with rarity Rare in quantity 1Avantoe seed (m)P2P icon.png1Rare43738
Kwuarm seed.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Kwuarm seed with rarity Rare in quantity 1Kwuarm seed (m)P2P icon.png1Rare15,07838
Snapdragon seed.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Snapdragon seed with rarity Very rare in quantity 1Snapdragon seed (m)P2P icon.png1Very rare37338
Cadantine seed.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Cadantine seed with rarity Rare in quantity 1Cadantine seed (m)P2P icon.png1Rare1,64938
Lantadyme seed.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Lantadyme seed with rarity Very rare in quantity 1Lantadyme seed (m)P2P icon.png1Very rare1,21638
Dwarf weed seed.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Dwarf weed seed with rarity Very rare in quantity 1Dwarf weed seed (m)P2P icon.png1Very rare66638
Torstol seed.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Torstol seed with rarity Very rare in quantity 1Torstol seed (m)P2P icon.png1Very rare98738
Jangerberry seed.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Jangerberry seed with rarity Uncommon in quantity 1Jangerberry seed (m)P2P icon.png1Uncommon7436
Poison ivy seed.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Poison ivy seed with rarity Uncommon in quantity 1Poison ivy seed (m)P2P icon.png1Uncommon27399
Bittercap mushroom spore.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Bittercap mushroom spore with rarity Uncommon in quantity 1Bittercap mushroom spore (m)P2P icon.png1Uncommon1,49851
Cactus seed.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Cactus seed with rarity Uncommon in quantity 1Cactus seed (m)P2P icon.png1Uncommon1,58359
Watermelon seed.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Watermelon seed with rarity Rare in quantity 1Watermelon seed (m)P2P icon.png1Rare3,79033
Whiteberry seed.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Whiteberry seed with rarity Uncommon in quantity 1Whiteberry seed (m)P2P icon.png1Uncommon15679
Limpwurt seed.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Limpwurt seed with rarity Uncommon in quantity 1Limpwurt seed (m)P2P icon.png1Uncommon4,5477
Strawberry seed.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Strawberry seed with rarity Rare in quantity 1Strawberry seed (m)P2P icon.png1Rare1,06410
Wildblood seed.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Wildblood seed with rarity Rare in quantity 1Wildblood seed (m)P2P icon.png1Rare2208
Air rune.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Air rune with rarity Common in quantity 60Air runeF2P icon.png60Common3,120180
Chaos rune.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Chaos rune with rarity Uncommon in quantity 9Chaos runeF2P icon.png9Uncommon1,107252
Cosmic rune.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Cosmic rune with rarity Uncommon in quantity 4Cosmic runeF2P icon.png4Uncommon1,652184
Water rune.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Water rune with rarity Uncommon in quantity 20Water runeF2P icon.png20Uncommon38060
Law rune.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Law rune with rarity Rare in quantity 2Law runeF2P icon.png2Rare856150
Black hatchet.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Black hatchet with rarity Common in quantity 1Black hatchetF2P icon.png1Common3,404230
Tiny plated steel salvage.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Tiny plated steel salvage with rarity Common in quantity 1Tiny plated steel salvageF2P icon.png1Common372240
Tiny spiky steel salvage.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Tiny spiky steel salvage with rarity Common in quantity 1Tiny spiky steel salvageF2P icon.png1Common231240
Mithril arrow.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Mithril arrow with rarity Uncommon in quantity 8Mithril arrowF2P icon.png8Uncommon176360
Small bladed mithril salvage.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Small bladed mithril salvage with rarity Uncommon in quantity 1Small bladed mithril salvageF2P icon.png1Uncommon3,5601,200
Small spiky bronze salvage.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Small spiky bronze salvage with rarity Uncommon in quantity 1Small spiky bronze salvageF2P icon.png1Uncommon10240
Coins_100.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Coins with rarity Common in quantity 20, 50, 80, 185CoinsF2P icon.png20; 50; 80; 185Common20-18520-185
Mithril stone spirit.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Mithril stone spirit with rarity Very rare in quantity 1Mithril stone spiritF2P icon.png1Very rare64Not alchemisable

Tertiary drops[edit | edit source]

Item Members Quantity Rarity GE price High Alch
Skeleton Champion's scroll.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Skeleton Champion's scroll with rarity 1/5000 in quantity 1Skeleton Champion's scroll (m)P2P icon.png11/5000[d 1]0High Level Alchemy icon.png0
Rare drop table.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Rare drop table with rarity Rare in quantity 1Rare drop tableF2P icon.png1RareNot soldNot alchemisable
  1. ^ Only obtainable if player has access to the Champions' Guild and hasn't already killed the Skeleton Champion in the Champion's Challenge.

Rare drop table[edit | edit source]

This monster has access to the rare drop table.
Luck-enhancing items such as a ring of Wealth or luck of the Dwarves are not required to access the table.
Rare drop table.png Rare drop table:
Rare drop table
Item Members Quantity Rarity GE price High alch value
Coins_250.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Coins with rarity Common in quantity 250-500CoinsF2P icon.png250–500Common250-500250-500
Uncut sapphire.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Uncut sapphire with rarity Common in quantity 1Uncut sapphireF2P icon.png1Common58815
Uncut emerald.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Uncut emerald with rarity Common in quantity 1Uncut emeraldF2P icon.png1Common1,15330
Uncut ruby.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Uncut ruby with rarity Common in quantity 1Uncut rubyF2P icon.png1Common1,33860
Uncut diamond.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Uncut diamond with rarity Common in quantity 1Uncut diamondF2P icon.png1Common2,991120
Uncut diamond.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Uncut diamond with rarity Rare in quantity 45-55 (noted)Uncut diamondF2P icon.png45–55 (noted)Rare134,595-164,5055,400-6,600
Loop half of a key.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Loop half of a key with rarity Common in quantity 1Loop half of a key (m)P2P icon.png1Common8,4090
Tooth half of a key.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Tooth half of a key with rarity Common in quantity 1Tooth half of a key (m)P2P icon.png1Common9,7550
Uncut dragonstone.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Uncut dragonstone with rarity Uncommon in quantity 1Uncut dragonstone (m)P2P icon.png1Uncommon12,309600
Uncut dragonstone.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Uncut dragonstone with rarity Rare in quantity 45-55 (noted)Uncut dragonstone (m)P2P icon.png45–55 (noted)Rare553,905-676,99527,000-33,000
Dragon longsword.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Dragon longsword with rarity Common in quantity 1Dragon longsword (m)P2P icon.png1Common57,16360,000
Dragon spear.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Dragon spear with rarity Rare in quantity 1Dragon spear (m)P2P icon.png1Rare33,37737,440
Battlestaff.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Battlestaff with rarity Rare in quantity 180-220 (noted)Battlestaff (m)P2P icon.png180–220 (noted)Rare531,900-650,100756,000-924,000
Rune javelin.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Rune javelin with rarity Rare in quantity 5Rune javelinF2P icon.png5Rare9151,870
Huge plated rune salvage.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Huge plated rune salvage with rarity Uncommon in quantity 1Huge plated rune salvageF2P icon.png1Uncommon38,79840,000
Huge plated rune salvage.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Huge plated rune salvage with rarity Rare in quantity 18-22 (noted)Huge plated rune salvageF2P icon.png18–22 (noted)Rare698,364-853,556720,000-880,000
Shield left half.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Shield left half with rarity Rare in quantity 1Shield left half (m)P2P icon.png1Rare61,77466,000
Dragon helm.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Dragon helm with rarity Uncommon in quantity 1Dragon helm (m)P2P icon.png1Uncommon57,99760,000
Rune arrowheads.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Rune arrowheads with rarity Common in quantity 113-137Rune arrowheadsF2P icon.png113–137Common13,108-15,892678-822
Onyx bolts.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Onyx bolts with rarity Very rare in quantity 135-165Onyx bolts (m)P2P icon.png135–165Very rare1,001,970-1,224,6301,104,165-1,349,535
Water talisman.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Water talisman with rarity Rare in quantity 68-82 (noted)Water talismanF2P icon.png68–82 (noted)Rare133,892-161,458136-164
Earth talisman.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Earth talisman with rarity Rare in quantity 68-82 (noted)Earth talismanF2P icon.png68–82 (noted)Rare8,024-9,676136-164
Raw lobster.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Raw lobster with rarity Common in quantity 135-165 (noted)Raw lobsterF2P icon.png135–165 (noted)Common48,330-59,07022,950-28,050
Raw shark.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Raw shark with rarity Uncommon in quantity 225-275 (noted)Raw shark (m)P2P icon.png225–275 (noted)Uncommon293,400-358,60040,500-49,500
Big bones.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Big bones with rarity Uncommon in quantity 68-82 (noted)Big bonesF2P icon.png68–82 (noted)Uncommon18,156-21,8940
Dragon bones.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Dragon bones with rarity Rare in quantity 180-220 (noted)Dragon bonesF2P icon.png180–220 (noted)Rare506,340-618,8600
Coal stone spirit.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Coal stone spirit with rarity Uncommon in quantity 900-1100Coal stone spiritF2P icon.png900–1,100Uncommon23,400-28,600Not alchemisable
Gold stone spirit.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Gold stone spirit with rarity Common in quantity 90-110Gold stone spiritF2P icon.png90–110Common4,140-5,060Not alchemisable
Adamantite stone spirit.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Adamantite stone spirit with rarity Uncommon in quantity 180-220Adamantite stone spiritF2P icon.png180–220Uncommon9,720-11,880Not alchemisable
Adamantite stone spirit.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Adamantite stone spirit with rarity Common in quantity 14-16Adamantite stone spiritF2P icon.png14–16Common756-864Not alchemisable
Adamantite stone spirit.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Adamantite stone spirit with rarity Rare in quantity 135-165Adamantite stone spiritF2P icon.png135–165Rare7,290-8,910Not alchemisable
Runite stone spirit.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Runite stone spirit with rarity Rare in quantity 90-110Runite stone spiritF2P icon.png90–110Rare28,440-34,760Not alchemisable
Runite stone spirit.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Runite stone spirit with rarity Common in quantity 3Runite stone spiritF2P icon.png3Common948Not alchemisable
Runite stone spirit.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Runite stone spirit with rarity Rare in quantity 45-55Runite stone spiritF2P icon.png45–55Rare14,220-17,380Not alchemisable
Grimy torstol.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Grimy torstol with rarity Uncommon in quantity 90-110 (noted)Grimy torstol (m)P2P icon.png90–110 (noted)Uncommon501,030-612,3700
Grimy snapdragon.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Grimy snapdragon with rarity Uncommon in quantity 90-110 (noted)Grimy snapdragon (m)P2P icon.png90–110 (noted)Uncommon128,430-156,9700
Super restore (4).png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Super restore (4) with rarity Uncommon in quantity 45-55 (noted)Super restore (4) (m)P2P icon.png45–55 (noted)Uncommon100,800-123,2008,100-9,900
Prayer potion (4).png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Prayer potion (4) with rarity Uncommon in quantity 45-55 (noted)Prayer potion (4)F2P icon.png45–55 (noted)Uncommon112,230-137,1705,130-6,270
Lantadyme seed.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Lantadyme seed with rarity Uncommon in quantity 14-16Lantadyme seed (m)P2P icon.png14–16Uncommon17,024-19,456532-608
Dwarf weed seed.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Dwarf weed seed with rarity Uncommon in quantity 14-16Dwarf weed seed (m)P2P icon.png14–16Uncommon9,324-10,656532-608
Magic seed.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Magic seed with rarity Uncommon in quantity 4Magic seed (m)P2P icon.png4Uncommon219,5361,012
Palm tree seed.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Palm tree seed with rarity Rare in quantity 10Palm tree seed (m)P2P icon.png10Rare516,2101,520
Flax.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Flax with rarity Common in quantity 450-550 (noted)FlaxF2P icon.png450–550 (noted)Common44,550-54,4501,350-1,650
Molten glass.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Molten glass with rarity Common in quantity 45-55 (noted)Molten glass (m)P2P icon.png45–55 (noted)Common15,930-19,47045-55
Soft clay.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Soft clay with rarity Uncommon in quantity 450-550 (noted)Soft clayF2P icon.png450–550 (noted)Uncommon186,300-227,700450-550
Yew logs.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Yew logs with rarity Uncommon in quantity 68-82 (noted)Yew logsF2P icon.png68–82 (noted)Uncommon11,560-13,9406,528-7,872
Yew logs.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Yew logs with rarity Rare in quantity 675-825 (noted)Yew logsF2P icon.png675–825 (noted)Rare114,750-140,25064,800-79,200
Teak plank.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Teak plank with rarity Uncommon in quantity 45-55 (noted)Teak plank (m)P2P icon.png45–55 (noted)Uncommon13,500-16,50013,500-16,500
Mahogany plank.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Mahogany plank with rarity Rare in quantity 270-330 (noted)Mahogany plank (m)P2P icon.png270–330 (noted)Rare240,030-293,370243,000-297,000
Vecna skull.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Vecna skull with rarity Rare in quantity 1Vecna skull (m)P2P icon.png1Rare[d 1]101,5196,000
Blurberry Special.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Blurberry Special with rarity Very rare in quantity 1Blurberry Special (m)P2P icon.png1Very rare[d 2]12,98418
Cheese+tom batta.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Cheese+tom batta with rarity Very rare in quantity 1Cheese+tom batta (m)P2P icon.png1Very rare[d 3]4121
Hazelmere's signet ring.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Hazelmere's signet ring with rarity Very rare in quantity 1Hazelmere's signet ring (m)P2P icon.png1Very rare[d 4]1,747,789,117300,000
Brawling gloves (Melee).png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Brawling gloves (Melee) with rarity Very rare in quantity 1Brawling gloves (Melee) (m)P2P icon.png1Very rareNot soldNot alchemisable
Brawling gloves (Magic).png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Brawling gloves (Magic) with rarity Very rare in quantity 1Brawling gloves (Magic) (m)P2P icon.png1Very rareNot soldNot alchemisable
Brawling gloves (Ranged).png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Brawling gloves (Ranged) with rarity Very rare in quantity 1Brawling gloves (Ranged) (m)P2P icon.png1Very rareNot soldNot alchemisable
Brawling gloves (Agility).png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Brawling gloves (Agility) with rarity Very rare in quantity 1Brawling gloves (Agility) (m)P2P icon.png1Very rareNot soldNot alchemisable
Brawling gloves (Cooking).png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Brawling gloves (Cooking) with rarity Very rare in quantity 1Brawling gloves (Cooking) (m)P2P icon.png1Very rareNot soldNot alchemisable
Brawling gloves (FM).png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Brawling gloves (FM) with rarity Very rare in quantity 1Brawling gloves (FM) (m)P2P icon.png1Very rareNot soldNot alchemisable
Brawling gloves (Fishing).png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Brawling gloves (Fishing) with rarity Very rare in quantity 1Brawling gloves (Fishing) (m)P2P icon.png1Very rareNot soldNot alchemisable
Brawling gloves (Hunter).png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Brawling gloves (Hunter) with rarity Very rare in quantity 1Brawling gloves (Hunter) (m)P2P icon.png1Very rareNot soldNot alchemisable
Brawling gloves (Mining).png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Brawling gloves (Mining) with rarity Very rare in quantity 1Brawling gloves (Mining) (m)P2P icon.png1Very rareNot soldNot alchemisable
Brawling gloves (Prayer).png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Brawling gloves (Prayer) with rarity Very rare in quantity 1Brawling gloves (Prayer) (m)P2P icon.png1Very rareNot soldNot alchemisable
Brawling gloves (Smithing).png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Brawling gloves (Smithing) with rarity Very rare in quantity 1Brawling gloves (Smithing) (m)P2P icon.png1Very rareNot soldNot alchemisable
Brawling gloves (Thieving).png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Brawling gloves (Thieving) with rarity Very rare in quantity 1Brawling gloves (Thieving) (m)P2P icon.png1Very rareNot soldNot alchemisable
Brawling gloves (WC).png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Brawling gloves (WC) with rarity Very rare in quantity 1Brawling gloves (WC) (m)P2P icon.png1Very rareNot soldNot alchemisable
Crystal triskelion fragment 1.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Crystal triskelion fragment 1 with rarity Very rare in quantity 1Crystal triskelion fragment 1 (m)P2P icon.png1Very rareNot soldNot alchemisable
Crystal triskelion fragment 2.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Crystal triskelion fragment 2 with rarity Very rare in quantity 1Crystal triskelion fragment 2 (m)P2P icon.png1Very rareNot soldNot alchemisable
Crystal triskelion fragment 3.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Crystal triskelion fragment 3 with rarity Very rare in quantity 1Crystal triskelion fragment 3 (m)P2P icon.png1Very rareNot soldNot alchemisable
  1. ^ Jagex. Mod Timbo's Twitter account. 19 January 2018. (Archived from the original on 22 January 2019.) Mod Timbo: "1/1280 if you hit the RDT, requires T4 luck to be worn in order to get a hold of it. Of course there are tons of different ways to access the RDT so it changes massively depending on what you're fighting, what you're wearing etc."
  2. ^ Indicates a failed 1/10 roll for Hazelmere's signet ring.
  3. ^ Indicates a roll for Hazelmere's signet ring without tier 4 luck.
  4. ^ Requires tier 4 luck. Rarer than the vecna skull.

Universal drops[edit | edit source]

Universal drops are dropped by nearly every monster outside of Daemonheim.
These items are dropped alongside main drops.
Item Members Quantity Rarity GE price High Alch
Key token.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Key token with rarity Rare in quantity 1Key tokenF2P icon.png1RareNot soldNot alchemisable
Mimic kill token.png: RS3 Skeleton fremennik drops Mimic kill token with rarity Very rare in quantity 1Mimic kill token (m)P2P icon.png1Very rare7,050Not alchemisable

References[edit | edit source]