# Mining

(Redirected from Rockertunities)
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For information on the mechanics prior to the 2019 rework, see Mining (Historical).
A player semi-actively mining for orichalcite ore using the Mining skill.
Mining level-up jingle

Mining is a gathering skill that allows players to extract ores, gems, rune essence, geodes, and other resources from rocks throughout RuneScape. Mined ores can be smelted at a furnace, turning them into bars that can be made into metal objects using the Smithing skill, Construction skill, or Crafting skill. On the World map, mines and mining sites are identified with a lump of ore (), and Mining shops are identified with a pickaxe () icon.

Mining was extensively overhauled on 7 January 2019 with the Mining and Smithing rework, which introduced mechanics intended to make the skill less tedious to train. New ores and updated pickaxes were also released.

## Core mechanics

The Pickaxe of Earth and Song is the best pickaxe in the game as of 7 January 2019, requiring a Mining level of 90 and the completion of three Grandmaster quests to obtain and use.

To mine, players need a pickaxe that they have the required Mining level to mine with. The pickaxe can be in the inventory, wielded in the main hand slot, or stored in the tool belt. Players should then choose where to mine, taking into consideration the proximity to a bank and what ores are available. Players only need to left-click once on any rock containing ore to mine it (provided they have the level needed for that ore type). The obtained ores, gems, and essence can then be sold for profit or used by the player for Smithing, Crafting, and Runecrafting skills.

### Rocks

Mining rocks do not deplete (However, stamina does deplete). For each strike on a rock, the player will make progress towards gaining an ore, as shown on a progress bar above the character's head. The amount of progress gained will depend on the player's Mining level and the tier of pickaxe that they use. Additionally, 10% of the player's Strength level is added to the player's progress gains. Rock have two assigned stats, durability and hardness. To view the stat on a particular rock, the player can right-click and select "prospect."

The prospect tooltip for a runite ore rock.

#### Durability

Durability, or hitpoints, determines the amount of progress needed to get ore from a rock. Once the player has built up enough progress points to equal the rock's durability, they will gain ore and their progress will reset.

#### Hardness

Hardness reduces the amount of progress gained from mining the rock and is checked against penetration. Using a pickaxe of a tier equivalent to or better than the tier of rock being mined will eliminate the effect of hardness.

#### Table of core rocks

Mining level Ore
1 Copper ore and Tin ore
10 Iron ore
20 Coal
30 Mithril ore
40 Adamantite ore and Luminite
50 Runite ore
60 Orichalcite ore and Drakolith
70 Necrite ore and Phasmatite
80 Banite ore
90 Light animica and Dark animica

#### Other rocks

Levelling benefits that apply to specific rocks (critical hit chance, rockertunity multiplier, geode chance, and double ore chance) do not apply to non-core rocks (concentrated deposits are counted as non-core rocks).

• Concentrated coal deposits require Mining level 70. Their experience multiplier is the same as a necrite rock. Levelling benefits for coal apply to concentrated coal deposits. Concentrated coal deposits have 500 durability (compared to necrite's 1,300) and grant five coal instead of one (working out to 100 durability per coal, compared to a coal rock's 140 durability per coal). This makes concentrated coal deposits the best source for coal.
• Concentrated gold deposits require Mining level 80. Their experience multiplier is the same as a banite rock, but levelling benefits for banite do not apply. Concentrated gold deposits have 750 durability (compared to banite's 1,700) and grant five gold ore instead of one (working out to 150 durability per gold ore). This makes concentrate gold deposits the best source for gold ore.
• mineral deposits produce sandstone and require Mining level 50. Unlike regular sandstone rocks, these have a higher experience multiplier and give Menaphos reputation.
• Both red sandstone and crystal-flecked sandstone rocks are among the only rocks that still deplete. When mining these rocks with the resourceful aura active, players retain a 10% chance to give an additional sandstone which does not contribute towards the daily limit.
• Various gem rocks have now been organised into five tiers requiring 1, 20, 40, 60 and 75 mining respectively. The higher tier gem rocks drop better gems.
• Alaea crablets give better active experience than animica, but give salt rather than valuable ores. This gives them a niche as the highest raw experience method. They cannot generate rockertunities.
• Solid crystal require 75 Mining to mine. Their experience multiplier is the same as a Necrite rock, but levelling benefits for Necrite do not apply. The drop rate is balanced to give around 1 crystal fragment per tick with 75 Mining. At 75 Mining, with a rate of 6,000 fragments (2,000 crystals) it would take 2.5 hours for a full set of attuned crystal armour (5,000 crystals).
• Seren stones Seren stones cannot generate rockertunities. Their niche is entirely AFK. Corrupted ore is awarded.
• Pure and rune essence have no major changes.

### Pickaxes

A player's Mining level determines the type of pickaxe they can mine with, while their Attack level determines whether they can wield it or not.

If multiple pickaxes are carried then the order of use is Equipped > Inventory > Tool belt. Any non-augmented pickaxe can be put in the toolbelt. Any pickaxe except Bronze pickaxes can be removed from the toolbelt directly without having to speak to Doc. This allows pickaxes to be swapped and upgraded. Placing a new pickaxe into the toolbelt removes the old one into your inventory. Removing a pickaxe from the toolbelt leaves a default Bronze pickaxe in its place - this is why Bronze pickaxes cannot be removed, to prevent a source of infinite pickaxes.

Every pickaxe has two stats, one named penetration, and a damage stat.

#### Penetration

Penetration is a stat that is checked against the hardness of the rock attempting to be mined. If the pickaxes' penetration stat is less than the hardness level of the rock the damage done toward an ore is reduced. This also reduces the amount of experience gained per swing.

#### Damage (stat)

Damage is a stat that determines the base damage a pickaxe can do. It is generally a range. As the level of a pickaxe increases, so does the damage stat.

For example: a bronze pickaxe has a minimum damage stat of 3 and a maxium damage stat of 7. While a Dragon pickaxe has a minimum damage stat of 33 and a maximum damage stat of 93.

As a general rule the better the pickaxe, the more effective it is as a mining tool. It is highly recommended to use the best possible pickaxe for your mining level.

#### Table of pickaxes

The following table of pickaxes has been sorted from least effective (Bronze) to most effective (Earth and Song).

Mining LevelPickaxeDamagePenetrationAugmentable
MinAverageMax
1 Bronze3570
10 Iron510155
10 Iron + 1611165
20 Steel10203015
20 Steel + 111213115
30 Mithril15304530
30 Mithril + 116314630
30 Mithril + 217324730
40 Adamant + 121416150
40 Adamant + 222426250
50 Rune25507575
50 Rune + 126517675
50 Rune + 227527775
50 Rune + 328537875
60 Orikalkum306090105
60 Orikalkum + 1316191105
60 Orikalkum + 2326292105
60 Orikalkum + 3336393105
60 Dragon336393105
70 Necronium3570105140
70 Necronium + 13671106140
70 Necronium + 23772107140
70 Necronium + 33873108140
70 Necronium + 43974109140
70 Crystal3974109140
80 Bane4080120185
80 Bane + 14181121185
80 Bane + 24282122185
80 Bane + 34383123185
80 Bane + 44484124185
80 Imcando4484124185
90 Elder rune4590135235
90 Elder rune + 14691136235
90 Elder rune + 24792137235
90 Elder rune + 34893138235
90 Elder rune + 44994139235
90 Elder rune + 55095140235
90 Earth and Song5095140235
##### Special pickaxes

Only four pickaxes are augmentable, therefore making them "special". Augmentation is done with the Invention skill.

Augmented pickaxes cannot be placed on the toolbelt, although their non-augmented versions can. Since the special pickaxes are identical in stats to one of the smithable pickaxes, it is only worth making a special pickaxe if you intend on augmenting it.

Level Image Name Creation Method
60 Dragon pickaxe
70 Crystal pickaxe
80 Imcando pickaxe
90 Pickaxe of Earth and Song

#### Where to get a pickaxe

Pickaxes are sold by Nurmof in the Dwarven Mine, Tati in Keldagrim, Bob (smith) in Lumbridge, or on the Grand Exchange. Pickaxes and their upgraded versions can be forged at the appropriate Smithing level.

### Damage (mechanic)

Damage is the mechanic that allows the progress toward gaining an ore while mining. The players damage progress is checked against the durability of the rock they are mining. There is a progress bar above the player's head. Once this is filled, the player receives an ore. Each swing deals damage based on the players Mining level, Strength level, and the pickaxe used. Swings occur every 4 ticks (2.4s). If a player's Strength level vastly out-levels their Mining level, it has a huge impact on their damage per swing and in turn their ore and experience per hour.

Damage progress is stored even if a player stops mining or switches rocks, provided they resume mining the same type of rock.

#### Basic equation

The basic calculation for damage is:

${\displaystyle DamagePerSwing=Mininglevel+\left\lfloor {\frac {Strengthlevel}{10}}\right\rfloor +DamageRoll+NetHardness+CritBonus}$

##### Equation notes
• ${\displaystyle NetHardness(Penetration-Hardness)}$ is only added to the equation when the players pickaxe is a lower tier than the rock they are attempting to mine. This results in a negative number, reducing the damage per swing.
For example:
Levels Pickaxe Rock Damage per Swing
30
30
Bronze pickaxe:

3-7 damage
0 penetration

Mithril ore rock:

240 durability
30 hardness

6 - 10
Mithril pickaxe:

15-45 damage
30 penetration

48 - 78
• ${\displaystyle CritBonus}$ is only added to the equation if the swing deals a critical hit. By default the player has a 10% chance on each swing to deal a critical strike, this is increased as the players mining level increases.
• Because Strength is rounded down in the calculation (i.e. levels 90-99 will all be +9), Strength level only has an impact every 10 levels.
• Visible and invisible boosts for Mining and Strength apply when determining damage per swing.
For example: The player has boosted their strength from level 38 to level 41. The equation will take into account a level + 4 bonus to the damage per swing as opposed to a + 3 bonus.
• Any excess damage carries over to your progress to another ore. However, more than 100% of the durability of a rock cannot be dealt in a single swing. Anything above 100% will be capped at 100%.
For example:
Levels Pickaxe Rock Damage per Swing Excess damage Actual damage per swing
30
30
Mithril pickaxe:

15-45 damage
30 penetration

Copper ore rocks:

40 durability
0 hardness

48-78 8-38 40-40[1]
1. ^ This would guarantee an ore every swing.

### Stamina

Mining Level Stamina Swings to deplete Seconds to deplete
15-18 100 10 24
19-25 110 11 26.4
26-27 120 12 28.8
28-32 130 13 31.2
33-45 140 14 33.6
46-56 150 15 36
57-66 160 16 38.4
67-70 170 17 40.8
71-87 180 18 43.2
88+ 190 19 45.6

At Mining level 15, players unlock the Stamina multiplier mechanic of the damage formula. Every swing drains 10 stamina, but stamina is refilled completely upon clicking a rock. 100%, 90%, and 20% damage are achieved with full, partial (1-99%) and empty stamina respectively. Stamina is indicated by a bar—while enabled by default, it can be hidden—under the mining progress bar and alternatively by green and white sparks representing full and partial stamina, respectively.

Players begin with 100 stamina which increases by 10 at the respective Mining level milestones listed in the following table. As stamina improves, so does the damage per hour for semi-active players. Thus, the mechanic incentivizes active and semi-active training by penalizing AFK mining. Active mining requires the player to maintain full stamina by clicking the rock once every 4 ticks (2.4 s). Semi-active mining assumes many forms, such as only clicking rockertunities while mining core rocks, but minimally necessitates refilling the stamina bar before it empties completely.

A player with full stamina
A player with 1 - 99% stamina

#### Example

Levels Pickaxe Rock Damage per Swing
30
30
Mithril pickaxe
15-45 damage
30 penetration
Mithril rock
240 durability
30 hardness
Full stamina Partial stamina Empty stamina
48-78 43.2-70.2 9.6-15.6

### Rockertunities

An orichalcite ore rock with a rockertunity.

While mining can be done completely AFK, rockertunities are a mechanic to keep players engaged while mining. After a minimum number of swings, there is a chance that a nearby rock (up to 6 game squares away) of the same type will become a rockertunity. Clicking the highlighted rock rewards the player extra damage (and by extension experience) for one swing. Since damage progress doesn't reset for changing to other rocks of the same type, participating in rockertunities can increase experience and ore per hour. They also have the potential to deal a critical hit, further increasing damage and experience. Rockertunities cannot spawn on the rock currently being mined and are exclusive to each player.

#### Rockertunity multiplier

While the base multiplier for rockertunities is ${\displaystyle \times 4}$, higher Mining levels can raise the multiplier up to six (dependent on rock). The values on the table below correspond to the Mining level required for the increased multipliers.

This levelling benefit only applies to core rocks, so, when mining non-core rocks such as concentrated coal or gold, the rockertunitiy multiplier will always be four.

The Magic golem outfit adds ${\displaystyle \times 1}$ so that the maximum multiplier is ${\displaystyle \times 6}$ or ${\displaystyle \times 7}$, depending on the ore being mined.

Rock Rockertunity Multiplier
x4 x5 x6
Copper ore and Tin ore 1 6 -
Iron ore 10 14 -
Coal 20 21 -
Mithril ore 30 38 -
Adamantite ore and Luminite 40 47 -
Runite ore 50 54 -
Orichalcite ore and Drakolith 60 68 -
Necrite ore and Phasmatite 70 73 77
Banite ore 80 89 -
Light animica and Dark animica 90 94 96

#### Example

Levels Pickaxe Rock Rockertunity damage
30
30
Mithril pickaxe
15-45 damage
30 penetration
Mithril rock
240 durability
30 hardness
Full stamina Partial stamina Empty stamina
192-312 172.8-280.8 38.4-62.4

### Critical swing

Critical swing!

Critical swings deal extra damage for that swing. If a critical swing is rolled on a rockertunity swing, the rockertunity multiplier also applies to the additional damage from the critical effect. A popup occurs whenever a critical swing is hit:

Critical swing chance
By default the player has a 5% chance on each swing to deal a critical swing. The values in the table below correspond to the Mining level required to achieve higher critical swing chances, specific to each rock. This levelling benefit only applies to core rocks, so, when mining non-core rocks such as concentrated coal or gold, the base 5% critical hit chance will be used.

RockCritical hit chance
5%10%15%
Copper128
Tin128
Iron1012-
Coal2025-
Mithril303135
Luminite404548
Runite505658
Orichalcite6064-
Drakolith6064-
Necrite7075-
Phasmatite7075-
Concentrated Coal7025-
Banite8081-
Light animica909197
Dark animica909197

Critical swing bonus
The critical swing bonus is the amount of extra damage gained for that swing. The critical swing bonus is not per rock and continues to accumulate as the player gains Mining levels - this also means that this bonus applies to non-core rocks.

Mining levelCritical hit bonus
15
310
915
1120
1725
2230
2435
3240
3445
4350
4455
5260
5965
6170
6575
7480
7985
8490
8795
99100

### Experience

Although not every swing grants an ore, every swing grants experience based on the damage rolled for that swing. The damage made on that swing is multiplied by the experience multiplier of that rock and a global ${\displaystyle 0.4}$ to determine the base experience drop.

#### Formula

${\displaystyle {\text{Experience}}={\text{Damage}}\times {\text{Rock XP Modifier}}\times 0.4}$

#### Rock experience modifiers

Ore Rock XP Multiplier
Copper ore and Tin ore 0.66
Iron ore 0.68
Coal 0.70
Mithril ore 0.72
Adamantite ore and Luminite 0.74
Runite ore 0.76
Orichalcite ore and Drakolith 0.78
Necrite ore and Phasmatite 0.80
Banite ore 0.82
Light animica and Dark animica 0.84

#### Examples

For example:

The experience calculations assume the damage from the above rockertunity table.

Levels Pickaxe Rock Rock experience modifier Stamina Experience per swing Average experience per hour
30
30
Mithril pickaxe
15-45 damage
30 penetration
Mithril ore rock
240 durability
30 hardness
${\displaystyle \times 0.72}$ Full 13.8-22.5 35,325
Partial 12.4-20.2 31,792
Empty 2.8-4.5 7,065

### Double ore chance

The values in the table below correspond to the Mining level required to obtain a chance to obtain double ore, specific to each rock. This levelling benefit only applies to core rocks, so, when mining non-core rocks, the base chance of 0% will be used.

Rock Double Ore Chance
0% 5% 10%
Copper ore and Tin ore 1 4 5
Iron ore 10 13
Coal 20 27
Mithril ore 30 36
Adamantite ore and Luminite 40 49
Runite ore 50 53
Orichalcite ore and Drakolith 60 62
Necrite ore and Phasmatite 70 76
Banite ore 80 82 86
Light animica and Dark animica 90 92 98

## Items found while mining

### Geodes

A geode is a rare item obtained sometimes when Mining which contains gems or other items. Geodes are stackable with the same type of geode, bankable, and untradeable. By default a player has a 5% chance to get a geode each time they get a piece of ore when mining. Levelling benefits can increase this for core rocks, the base chance of 5% will be used for non-core rocks. There are three different types of geodes. The type of geode you get is based on the level requirement of the rock, for example regular coal yields Sedimentary geodes, whilst concentrated coal yields Igneous geodes due to their higher level requirement to mine them.

Rock Geode type Geode chance
by Mining level[c 1]
${\displaystyle 5\%}$ ${\displaystyle 10\%}$ ${\displaystyle 15\%}$
Copper; Tin Sedimentary 5[c 2] 8 -
Iron Sedimentary 10 12 -
Coal Sedimentary 20 25 -
Mithril Sedimentary 30 31 35
Adamantite Sedimentary 40 45 48
Luminite Sedimentary 40 45 48
Runite Sedimentary 50 56 58
Orichalcite; Drakolith Igneous[c 3] 60 64 -
Necrite; Phasmatite Igneous[c 3] 70 75 -
Concentrated Coal Igneous[c 3] 70 23[c 4] -
Banite Igneous[c 3] 80 81 -
Light animica; Dark animica Igneous[c 3] 90 91 97
1. ^ This is the base chance, for a more accurate chance which accounts for bonuses see the mining rate calculator
2. ^ Tin and copper require level 1 Mining, however receiving geodes requires level 5 Mining.
3. ^ a b c d e When an igneous geode is obtained, there is a base 1% chance that a metamorphic geode is obtained instead.
4. ^ Concentrated coal deposits benefit from the same levelling benefits as regular coal rocks.

#### Sedimentary geode drop list

ItemChanceGE Price
Uncut opal20%255
Uncut red topaz7.5%390
Uncut sapphire5%783
Uncut emerald2.5%2,945
Uncut ruby1.5%2,173
Uncut diamond1%5,640
Spirit shards50%24
Average Value333

#### Igneous geode drop list

ItemChanceGE Price
Uncut opal5%255
Uncut red topaz7%390
Uncut sapphire8%783
Uncut emerald9%2,945
Uncut ruby8%2,173
Uncut diamond5%5,640
Uncut dragonstone2%11,604
Spirit shards50%24
Average Value1,086

#### Metamorphic geode drop list

ItemQuantityValue
Uncut onyx12,313,851
Onyx dust5-15108,860 - 326,580
Crystal triskelion fragment1Not Sold
Dragon equipment111,468 - 1,019,310
Concentrated alloy bar1-1057,235 - 572,350
Enriched alloy bar1286,561
Sealed clue scroll (elite)1Not Sold
Ancient effigy1 1,000,000
Anima crystal1 150,000
Corrupted ore100-300Not Sold
First Age coin1 1,000,000
Hydrix bolt tips25-50226,925 - 453,850
Banite stone spirit25-75104,600 - 313,800
Dark animica stone spirit10-3018,010 - 54,030
Light animica stone spirit10-3092,150 - 276,450
Average Value437,881

## Items that assist with mining

### Ore boxes

Main article: Ore box
Ore boxes

The ore box is a bankable and tradeable inventory item similar to the Large rune pouch, which allows the player to collect more ore than will fit in an inventory for longer mining sessions without banking.

The ore box is made using the Smithing skill at an anvil. Ore boxes can be upgraded to hold higher level ores, this is done at an anvil with two bars and the previous ore box. Ore boxes can store 100 of each ore up to the level of the box (i.e. an Ore Box (Steel) can store 100 Copper ore, 100 Tin ore, 100 Iron ore and 100 Coal). The Smithing level requirement is merely to forge the upgrade not to apply it - players without the level may purchase on the grand exchange. At certain Mining levels, the capacity of the ore box can be raised from 100 to 120. The values below denote the Mining level required to unlock the increase for each of the ores. A further increase of 20 (totalling 140) can be unlocked by completing the Everything Is Oresome achievement.

Notes:

• Ore boxes can only store core ores. Gold and Silver ore can only be stored after completion of Family Crest.
• Ore boxes have a shared inventory, so owning more than one is unnecessary.
Smithing level Name Ingredients Progress Experience Stores Up To
1 Bronze ore box 2 Bronze bar 200 0 Copper ore and Tin ore
10 Iron ore box 2 Iron bar
Bronze ore box
400 80 Iron ore
20 Steel ore box 2 Steel bar
Iron ore box
600 150 Coal
30 Mithril ore box 2 Mithril bar
Steel ore box
800 240 Mithril ore
40 Adamant ore box 2 Adamant bar
Mithril ore box
1000 340 Adamantite ore and Luminite
50 Rune ore box 2 Rune bar
1200 480 Runite ore
60 Orikalkum ore box 2 Orikalkum bar
Rune ore box
1400 700 Orichalcite ore and Drakolith
70 Necronium ore box 2 Necronium bar
Orikalkum ore box
1600 1000 Necrite ore and Phasmatite
80 Bane ore box 2 Bane bar
Necronium ore box
1800 1400 Banite ore
90 Elder rune ore box 2 Elder rune bar
Bane ore box
2000 2000 Light animica and Dark animica

### Bottled stone spirits

Main article: Bottled stone spirit

Bottled stone spirits are items that allow you to gain an additional ore while mining. Stone spirits appear on drop tables (including bosses, minigames, thieving, etc). When receiving ore through mining a stone spirit of that same type of ore is consumed granting an additional piece of ore (i.e. doubles the ore rate). Since each spirit only produces a single piece of ore, large numbers of them need to be carried by miners if they want continual double yields.

No additional XP is awarded for the extra ore. If more than one ore was gained (e.g. via Varrock armour) still only 1 stone spirit is consumed and 1 additional ore gained (for a total of 3; base, one from the armour, one from the stone spirit).

## Mines and mining sites

### Special mining areas

• Coal truck mining site - The coal trucks are located west from Seers' Village and north from Ardougne. There are handy carts for storing coal in. The carts can store 224 at a time and it is also recommended to take a full ore box and inventory of coal when leaving as well. There is a quick way or a slow way to get to and from the coal trucks.
• Quick Way: With 20 Agility go across the log that is on the east side of the coal trucks. The Camelot Teleport spell can also be used for quick access to the Seers' bank
• Slow Way: To walk all the way around the lake, past the Fishing Guild, to Seers' Village.
• Once in Seers' Village go north-west from Seers' Village bank and there are more coal trucks in the shed. Remove all the coal and bank, repeating the process until all the ore has been taken.
• After completing the Seers' Village Tasks the coal trucks can hold up to a max of 308 coal before having to be emptied.
• Mining Guild - It is close to a bank (just climb the ladders to the west and head north). Level 60 Mining is required to enter (level 59 miners can achieve this by drinking a dwarven stout just before entering the guild). The Artisans' Workshop is just outside the guild providing quick access to the metal bank.
• You can save a couple of seconds while banking using the skills necklace's Mining Guild teleport, which teleports you directly in front of the stairs leading down to the mining area.
• Crafting Guild - The Crafting Guild is a place in free play to mine gold, silver, and clay. 40 Crafting is required to enter.
• Arzinian Mine - After completing the Between a Rock... quest, members can access the largest gold mine in the game, with large amount of gold rocks. Players must talk to Dondakan while wearing a gold helmet in order to access it. To leave the mine, simply remove the helmet or log off and log in again. The mine is very far from a bank; however, a short ways away, there is a dwarf who will deliver Gold ore to the bank for you in exchange for a 20% cut of the profits, rounded up. The fee is halved if the player is wearing a ring of charos (a).
• Dwarven Mine resource dungeon - Requires level 15 Dungeoneering to enter. This mining location is by far the closest location to a bank/deposit box in RuneScape, and therefore it is a very favourable place to mine, especially in free to play servers.
• Lava Flow Mine - After completing the King of the Dwarves quest, players unlock a new area to mine with a chance to receive the golden mining suit. There are a number of distractions at the mine which are effectively random events. To successfully achieve the best experience, you must make sure you are mining at the segment with a 50% lava flow which can be checked by clicking the gauges. No ore is produced here.

## Distractions and diversions

### Shooting Stars

Main article: Shooting Star

Shooting Stars is a repeatable Distraction and Diversion. They can be found via a telescope in a player-owned house. They fall in waves every 2 hours on all free-to-play and members worlds and will land around 2–15 minutes after each other. The stars can be from size 1 (10 Mining required) up to size 9 (90 Mining required). Bigger stars give more stardust in total, but are much harder to mine. There are nine areas in RuneScape where shooting stars will land at. You can learn more about the specific locations in the Distractions and Diversions guide. If you reach your limit of 200 stardust, you can still carry on mining the star for Mining experience. Mining stars give players stardust. 200 stardust may be exchanged for:

For an exact total of 129,446 coins.

• 25% chance to receive double ores when mining for up to 15 minutes of in-game time. This boost will not count down while in the lobby or logged out.

There are clans that specialise in finding shooting stars. The Distractions and Diversions section of the official RuneScape forums is home to several of these clans.

### Wilderness Warbands

Main article: Wilderness Warbands

Wilderness Warbands is a members-only Distraction and Diversion where the player or a group of players attempt to loot supplies and trade it in for experience. One of the possible loots are Mining supplies. Players can loot up to a maximum of 25 supplies per camp up to 3 camps daily (75 supplies). Turning the supplies to Quercus will give players experience based on how many supplies they have looted and what their current level is.

### Random events

Main article: Random events

## Mining boosts and bonuses

### Equipment/items/other boosts

Image Name Benefit
or Mining cape or Mining master cape
• +5% double ore chance. Whenever double ore is received, bonus XP equal to the level requirement to mine that rock is awarded.
Mining accumulator
• Gains 1% charge whenever the player gets a critical swing when Mining.
• Upon studying the player gains 2,500 Mining experience, which destroys the accumulator.
Amulet of glory Increases geode drop chance by 1%.
Ring of Wealth Doubles the chance of receiving a metamorphic geode instead of an igneous geode (2% up from 1%). Higher tier luck rings also have this effect.
Sign of the porter (I) (II) (III) (IV) (V) (VI) Allows transport of ore to your bank once your inventory is full.
Mining urn Will give experience once filled.
Juju mining potion 10% chance to gain a stone spirit of the type of ore mined (applies every ore-receiving swing, not every swing).
or Perfect juju mining potion
• 10% chance to gain a stone spirit of the type of ore mined (applies every ore-receiving swing, not every swing).
• Whenever a stone spirit is consumed to generate an additional ore, the player's stamina bar immediately refills.
Statue collection bag Allows you to collect strange rocks and golden rocks without them taking up inventory space.
Magic golem outfit
Quarrymaster aura Increase critical hit chance by 2/4/6/8/10% when Mining
Resourceful aura
• +2% geode chance when Mining.
• 10% chance to give an additional red/crystal-flecked sandstone which does not contribute towards the daily limit.
• 10% chance to not deplete a resource when Woodcutting.
Varrock armour 1
• +4% chance of mining double ore when mining copper, tin, iron, or coal.
• With medium New Varrock tasks finished: Above double ore chances doubled.
Varrock armour 2
Varrock armour 3
Varrock armour 4
Rock-crushing scrimshaw Increase critical hit chance by 2% (regular scrimshaw) or 3% (superior scrimshaw) when Mining.
Gem-finding scrimshaw Increase geode chance by 2% (regular scrimshaw) or 3% (superior scrimshaw) when Mining.
Ring of Whispers Gives +3 Mining damage per swing when worn.
Collector's insignia
• Charged:
• +2% geode chance
• +10% chance for red or crystal sandstone to not deplete
• Uncharged:
• +1% geode chance
• +5% chance for red or crystal sandstone to not deplete
Scimitops Perk
• Tier 1:
• Increases the chance of finding geode while Mining by 1%
• Tier 2:
• Increases the chance of finding geode while Mining by 2%
Asciatops Perk
• Tier 1:
• Increases the chance of a critical swing while Mining by 3%.
• Tier 2:
• Increases the chance of a critical swing while Mining by 6%.

### Temporary boosts

Main article: Temporary skill boost
A player wearing a mining cape (t) and performing the skillcape emote.
• Mining cape visibly boosts the player's Mining level by 1 when a player selects the 'boost' option that comes with the cape. However, 99 Mining is required.
• Dwarven stout - Drinking this will raise a player's Mining and Smithing levels by 1 for a short time. Dwarven stouts can be bought in Falador one at a time, or members can buy them in bulk in Burthorpe. They are also a common drop from dwarves, and can be bought in several places in members areas, as well as brewed using the Cooking skill. There are several re-spawns in the dwarf tavern along the shortcut under White Wolf Mountain (you need to complete Fishing Contest to go there).
• Mature dwarven stout - Members only. Drinking this will raise a player's Mining and Smithing by 2 levels for a short time. Players receive two mature dwarven stouts as a reward for completing the quest Forgettable Tale of a Drunken Dwarf, but they can also be brewed using the Cooking skill. This does not stack with ordinary dwarven stout.
• A brown spicy stew can raise Mining temporarily by up to 5; however, it can also decrease it by up to 5.
• Braindeath 'rum' raises Mining by one level and Strength by 3, but decreases some other stats.
• A god banner will provide a visible, +2 boost, lasting for half an hour.
• Desert wyrms, summoned at level 18 in Summoning will add + 1 damage per swing, while mining.
• Void ravagers, summoned at level 34 in Summoning will add + 1 damage per swing, while mining. If a scroll is used, there is an additional +1 visible boost.
• Obsidian golems, summoned at level 73 in Summoning, will add + 7 damage per swing, while mining. If a scroll is used, Strength is given an additional +9 levels, leading to a total +8 damage per swing (unless your Strength is a multiple of 10).
• Gargoyles summoned at level 75 in Summoning will give an invisible +12 mining level boost. If a scroll is used, your next mining swing will do 50% more damage.
• Lava titans summoned at level 83 in Summoning will give add + 10 damage per swing, while mining.
• Star sprites from a Shooting Star will reward you with being able to mine 2 ores at once (25% chance), lasting for the amount of stardust you collected (200 stardust equals a 15-minute boost); it does work on runite.
• A stoneberry can be used to temporarily boost mining by 2 levels, but will also reduce your defence level by 1. These cannot stack.
• An advanced pulse core has a chance of providing a temporary mining boost of 11 levels.
• Any items that boost Strength will also boost damage per swing +1, for each multiple of 10 you cross. Extreme Strength, for example, can take a person from level 94 strength to level 111, giving +2 damage per swing.
• The Jadinko perk from ranch out of time can extend all juju potions including the perfect juju mining potion by 30s.

## Training

See Free-to-play Mining training and Pay-to-play Mining training for details.

## Skilling pet (Rocky)

Main article: Rocky

Like all skills, there is a skilling pet obtainable from training this skill. The pet for the Mining skill is called Rocky.

## Achievements

Main article: Mining achievements

## History

Mining was one of the skills available at RuneScape's launch on 4 January 2001. In the beginning, there was only one kind of pickaxe, just called Pickaxe which had to be used manually on the rock. It was not until 2003 that metal pickaxes were added to the game. With the large graphical update in 2004, random events were added. These included the Rock golem, pickaxe heads falling off, and broken pickaxes. In 2006 players began to mine granite in the Desert Quarry, some of the fastest Mining experience in the game. In late 2009, the long-awaited dragon pickaxe was released as a drop from chaos dwogres, chaos dwarf hand cannoneer, and chaos dwarves (only on battlefield), all of which are located on the Chaos Dwarf Battlefield. On 10 November 2014 Crystal pickaxe was released requiring you to give Lady Ithell a dragon pickaxe and 4,000 harmonic dust to sing one for you. This made it the best pickaxe in the game until the Mining and Smithing rework of 2019, when it was replaced by the Elder rune pickaxe + 5 and the Pickaxe of Earth and Song.

Players used to be able to discover which ore was in a rock by right-clicking and selecting Prospect (with or without a pickaxe) which would require them to wait a few seconds before learning which ore the rock contained. However, most types of ores can now be determined by simply examining the rock. Experienced miners did not need to prospect every rock, as they recognised the colour of the rock and knew the ore it contained. However, an update made it so that simply hovering one's cursor over the rock would tell the player what ore was to be found in it, in the upper-left corner (though some rocks, like certain mineral veins, still have the "Prospect" option). After the 2019 rework, prospecting was reintroduced, now displaying the level requirement, hitpoints, hardness, and XP multiplier for the given location.

## Update history

The update history project is a work-in-progress – not all updates to this topic may be covered below. See here for how to help out!
• patch 17 February 2020 (Update):
• Semi-active miners were unintentionally impacted by a change to AFK mining rates. To remedy this the rates have been adjusted as follows:
• 100% stamina = 100% damage
• 1-99% stamina = 90% damage
• 0% stamina = 20% damage
• Players only chasing rockertunities should now find their rates similar to before
• patch 3 February 2020 (Update):
• Damage dealt to rock’s HP now scales with the player's current mining stamina. With no stamina remaining, swings provide only 20% of the damage that is dealt at full stamina (outside random damage variation and critical hits).
• Rocks that don't reduce stamina (like red sandstone and Arc crablets) aren't affected by these changes. As before, you can restore stamina by clicking/tapping on a rock again.
• Modifiers from pickaxe tier, rock hardness, strength level, and critical hit damage are unchanged and work as before.
• Stamina is restored automatically when stone spirits are consumed while under the effect of a perfect juju mining potion.
• Stamina no longer depletes while mining Seren Stones, as such Seren stones have had their HP increased from 1500 to 2000.
• Updated the mining skill guide to include Anachronia mining locations for various ores.
• Various Mining & Smithing typos have been fixed and corrected.
• patch 18 November 2019 (Update):
• Fixed an issue causing geode chances in the Mining level benefits section of the skillguide to be incorrectly described.
• patch 4 November 2019 (Update):
• Concentrated coal is now updated and displayed under Level 70 in mining skill-guide.
• patch 14 October 2019 (Update):
• Fixed an issue stopping players from redeeming certain noted ores from Ordan.
• patch 23 September 2019 (Update):
• Certain wieldable items are now hidden during woodcutting or mining animation.
• patch 19 August 2019 (Update):
• Added members icon next to pure essence in the Mining skill guide.
• ninja 1 April 2019 (Update):
• The rate you receive warning messages for getting reduced rates due to your pickaxe level when mining has been lowered.
• patch 18 March 2019 (Update):
• A full stamina bar is no longer displayed (if enabled) above the player's head when they start to mine a node which does not deplete stamina (such as crablets and sandstone).
• patch 11 March 2019 (Update):
• The following messages now get filtered:
• "Your backpack is full." (When mining, foraging)
• "Your backpack is full. You can store ore in your ore box."
• patch 4 March 2019 (Update):
• Players will once again receive an error message when trying to mine a rock higher than their mining level, and can once again use boosts to mine rocks above their mining level.
• patch 14 January 2019 (Update):
• Fixed typo when Ithell Voice of Seren transports soft clay to a players bank.
• Solid lava geyser duration has been reduced drastically.
• Your progress when mining a solid lava geyser is now reset correctly.
• There is now a message when your furnace perk activates while mining.
• Red sandstone will no longer be marked as complete for the 'I Love DailyScape' achievement if the player does not have access to the rock.
• It is now no longer possible to fill ore boxes when you have multiple of them on you.
• The achievement "My Sick Four Tick Trick" can no longer be unlocked by stalling the player during a mining operation.
• Suity level maximum achievement can no longer be achieved while using a dwarven ramhammer.
• It is no longer possible to attempt to store pickaxes on your toolbelt in free to play worlds if you have a member's only pickaxe already stored.
• When having a high-level members pickaxe on your toolbelt on F2P, when mining, this will now default to runite.
• All tiers of the Quarrymaster aura have been doubled in their percentage chance of critical hits while mining.
• Moved some stalagtites in the haunted mine, which blocked access to a portion of drakolith vein.
• patch 7 January 2019 (Update):
• Reduced level requirement to mine iron, coal, mithril, adamant and runite to 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 respectively.
• Adamant and runite now use luminite rather than coal as the secondary ingredient for smelting. Luminite can be mined at mining level 40.
• Added new tiers of ore to mine. At 60, orichalcite and drakolith. At 70, necrite and phasmatite. At 80, bane ore (existing bane ore counts). At 90, light animica and dark animica.
• All mining sites have been rearranged to include the new ores. The world map now shows what rocks are available at each mining site.
• Mining rocks no longer deplete.
• Every swing now gives XP, but ore is only earned after filling up the progress bar with multiple swings.
• Rockertunities will spawn occasionally which, when clicked, result in a burst of additional XP and ore.
• If you let yourself go AFK while mining, you will gradually slow down slightly. If you click frequently, you will stay at maximum mining speed. The difference between fastest and slowest is about 20%.
• When mining you have a chance to gain geodes. Regular geodes contain gems, and metamorphic geodes always contain rare prizes.
• When levelling mining, you unlock new benefits at every level. Most of these benefits apply only to that tier of rocks.
• You can make an ore box using the smithing skill. Depending on its upgrade level, it can store up to 100 of each ore.
• Ore and bars can be stored in the new metal bank which is accessible from any furnace, forge or anvil.
• Your pickaxe level matters a lot - higher level pickaxes mine faster, and if you're not using a pickaxe at least as high level as the rock you're mining, you get a penalty.
• You can combine the crystal pickaxe with the imcando pickaxe using a blast fusion hammer to make a level 90 augmentable pickaxe.
• You can add and remove any pickaxe (except bronze and augmented) from the toolbelt.
• All ore and bars have been replaced with consumable "stone spirits" which double ore yields when carried while mining.
• Honed perk now increases chance for double ore when mining.
• Refined perk now increases geode chance when mining.
• Seren stones are largely unchanged and will remain the best AFK mining method. They still drop corrupted ore. As core ores are now more valuable, Seren stones may be less useful.
• The coal bag has been removed and refunded.
• The collector's insignia now increases geode chance and increases the chance for double ore when mining sandstone.
• Varrock armour now increases the chance for double bars when smelting, for double ore when mining and for double progress when smithing. Higher levels of the armour work on higher level metals.
• New varrock armour doubles the effectiveness of varrock armour, and allows its mining and smithing benefits to work without wearing the armour.
• Luck enhancers (ring of Wealth, etc) now increase the chance for geodes to upgrade to metamorphic geodes.
• Quarrymaster aura now increases the chance to critically swing when mining.
• Resourceful aura now increases the chance to find geodes when mining and increases the chance to get double ore when mining sandstone.
• Divine location rocks have had their divination requirements lowered to match the new mining requirements. Divine luminite has been added, but higher tier divine locations have not been added at this time.
• Juju mining potions now have a chance to give free stone spirits when mining. (Stone spirits double ore yield.) Perfect juju mining potions make mining faster when using stone spirits.
• The mining accumulator now gains charge whenever the player gets a critical swing when mining.
• When mining, crystallise now only works on core mining rocks. It prevents ore from dropping, and adds 20% additional mining XP as long as the player is not AFK.
• Light form doubles the effect of crystallise from 20% to 40%.
• Superheat form no longer automatically smelts ore when mining. Instead, it reduces the time taken to smelt bars, and increases the amount by which heat speeds up smithing.
• Skillchompas can be used in addition to a mining pick, and increase the damage dealt by critical swings.
• Rock-crushing scrimshaw now increases chance for a critical swing when mining.
• Gem-finding scrimshaw now increases the chance to find geodes when mining.
• Mining familiars now increase the damage the player deals to rocks when mining.
• The nymph in the lava flow mine now spawns more frequently and consistently.
• Trahaearn hour causes random level 90 animica rocks to spawn on each world, requiring worlds to be searched for a good pattern. In addition all mining has a higher chance for double ore, and smelting corrupted ore gives more XP.
• Ithell hour now gives a chance for soft clay mined to be put straight into the bank.
• The empty throne room is now the primary site for dark animica ore. The previous mining activity has been removed. The agility and divination activities are unchanged, except it is no longer necessary to refill the boxes at all.
• The gemstone golem outfit now increases the chance to get a critical swing when mining, and the magic outfit makes rockertunities more effective.
• Starfury armour now increases the chance to get a critical swing when mining Seren stones.
• The mining skillcape now increases the chance to gain double ore, and awards bonus XP whenever double ore is gained.
• patch 18 April 2017 (Update):
• Fixed an issue that caused players to automatically continue mining after a rock has been depleted.
• patch 18 July 2016 (Update):
• The larger rock entry on the Mining skillguide (used to make ornate bowl for Tears of Guthix) is now marked as members only.
• patch 8 June 2015 (Update):
• The Mining and Defence skill guides have been updated, correcting and including certain entries.
• patch 5 January 2015 (Update):
• Gaining level 75 in the relevant skills for Plagues' End is now mentioned in the skill advance messages.
• Crystal-flecked sandstone now states Plague's End as a requirement in the Mining skill guide.
• patch 1 December 2014 (Update):
• Pickaxes and hatchets had their accuracy improved to match that of its tier. Their strength remains unchanged.
• patch 2 June 2014 (Update):
• The mining animation no longer jumps when it tries to loop the animation.
• ninja 17 March 2014 (Update):
• The 'Prospect' option has been removed from a large amount of locations it had remained on.
• patch 31 January 2012 (Update):
• Attempting to mine whilst resting no longer hides a player's pickaxe.
• patch 16 May 2011 (Update):
• The Mining micro-tutorial has been altered to stop telling players about prospecting.
• patch 8 July 2009 (Update):
• Stopped your hair stretching when mining while wearing certain items.
• patch 19 May 2009 (Update):
• Stealing Creation pickaxes have been clarified as members-only in the skill guide.
• Woodcutting and Mining now try to use the axe/pickaxe you're currently wielding. If you don't have one in your hands, it'll try to select the best one in your inventory.
• patch 12 May 2009 (Update):
• Removed an inaccessible Mining rock from the middle of a river.
• patch 25 February 2009 (Update):
• The Mining skill guide has had missing information added to the previously blank section.
• update 3 July 2007 (Update):
• As part of the Barbarian Training update we have reworked a number of skill sounds so they are timed more accurately. This means that when you swing your pick to mine, or cast your rod into a Fishing spot, you will hear the sound of the rock being hit exactly when it should happen, these changes may also very slightly reduce lag when you are involved in these skills. The skills with updated sounds are Firemaking, Fletching, Mining, Fishing and Woodcutting. As a side effect of this, you'll notice that the Mining animation has changed. Getting the Mining sounds to match up was a bit of a tough job, so we put some work into the animation to iron out those problems. The result is a really nice bit of work from the Graphics team that should make Mining a bit more enjoyable.
• update 4 January 2001 (Update):
• Runescape beta goes live, releasing Mining into the game.

## Trivia

The old Mining level-up jingle
• Early in RS classic it was possible to mine gems from rocks that you did not have the proper level to normally mine ore. This allowed a player to rapidly click on the rock and obtain gems without actually mining it. This exploit was swiftly fixed.
• In a hidden update the mining jingle got changed.
• The current minimum requirement to be ranked (at approximately rank 1,473,923) on the hiscores for Mining is level 15. As of 02 July 2020, there are 185,123 current members that have achieved level 99 in Mining. There are 13,563 current members that have achieved level 120 in Mining.