Mining

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This article is about the mining skill. For information on training mining, see Mining training (F2P) (P2P).
For information on the mechanics prior to the 2019 rework, see Mining (Historical).
Mining.png
A player semi-actively mining for orichalcite ore using the Mining skill.
Audio options icon.png
Mining level-up jingle

Mining is a gathering skill that allows players to extract ores, gems, rune essence, geodes and other resources from rocks in mines throughout RuneScape. Mined ores can be smelted at a furnace, turning them into bars that can be made into metal objects using the Smithing skill, but also sometimes the Construction skill or the Crafting skill. On the map, mines and mining sites are identified with a lump of ore (Mining spot map icon.png), and Mining shops are identified with a pickaxe (Mining shop map icon.png) icon.

The current minimum requirement to be ranked (at approximately rank 1,316,836) on the hiscores for Mining is level 15. As of 20 March 2019, there are 151,266 current members that have achieved level 99 in Mining. There are 10,323 current members that have achieved level 120 in Mining.

Mining was extensively overhauled on 7 Jan 2019. The Mining and Smithing rework introduced mechanics intended to make the skill less tedious to train. New ores and updated pickaxes were also released.

Core mechanics[edit | edit source]

The pickaxe of earth and song.

To mine, players need a pickaxe that they have the required Mining level to mine with. The pickaxe can be in their inventory, wielded in the main hand slot, or stored in the tool belt. Players should then choose where to mine, taking into consideration the proximity to a bank, and what ores are available. Players only need to left-click once on any rock containing ore to mine it (provided they have the level needed for that ore type). The obtained ores, gems, and essence can then be sold for profit, or used by the player for the Smithing, Crafting and Runecrafting skills.

Rocks[edit | edit source]

Mining rocks do not deplete. For each strike on a rock, the player will make progress towards gaining an ore, as shown on a progress bar above the character's head. The amount of progress gained will depend on the player's Mining level and the tier of pickaxe that they use. Additionally, 1/10 of the player's Strength level is added to the player's progress gains. Rock have two assigned stats, durability and hardness. To view the stats on a particular rock, the player can right-click and select "prospect."

The prospect tooltip for a runite ore rock.

Durability[edit | edit source]

Durability or hitpoints determines the amount of progress needed to get ore from the rock. Once the player has built up enough progress points to equal the rock's durability they will gain ore and their progress will reset.

Hardness[edit | edit source]

Hardness reduces the amount of progress gained from mining the rock and is checked against penetration. Using a pickaxe of a tier equivalent to or better than the tier of rock being mined will eliminate the effect of hardness.

Table of core rocks[edit | edit source]

Mining level Ore
1 Copper ore.png: Inventory image of Copper oreCopper ore and Tin ore.png: Inventory image of Tin oreTin ore
10 Iron ore.png: Inventory image of Iron oreIron ore
20 Coal.png: Inventory image of CoalCoal
30 Mithril ore.png: Inventory image of Mithril oreMithril ore
40 Adamantite ore.png: Inventory image of Adamantite oreAdamantite ore and Luminite.png: Inventory image of LuminiteLuminite
50 Runite ore.png: Inventory image of Runite oreRunite ore
60 Orichalcite ore.png: Inventory image of Orichalcite oreOrichalcite ore and Drakolith.png: Inventory image of DrakolithDrakolith
70 Necrite ore.png: Inventory image of Necrite oreNecrite ore and Phasmatite.png: Inventory image of PhasmatitePhasmatite
80 Banite ore.png: Inventory image of Banite oreBanite ore
90 Light animica.png: Inventory image of Light animicaLight animica and Dark animica.png: Inventory image of Dark animicaDark animica

Other rocks[edit | edit source]

Levelling benefits that apply to specific rocks (critical hit chance, rockertunity multiplier, geode chance, double ore chance) do not apply to non-core rocks (concentrated deposits are counted as non-core rocks).

  • Coal.png Concentrated coal deposits require 70 Mining. Their experience multiplier is the same as a necrite rock, levelling benefits for coal apply to concentrated coal deposits. Concentrated coal deposits have 500 durability (compared to necrite's 1,300) and grant five coal instead of one (working out to 100 durability per coal, compared to a coal rock's 140 durability per coal). This makes concentrated coal deposits the best source for coal which is used with the smithing auto-heater.
  • Gold ore.png Concentrated gold deposits require 80 Mining. Their experience multiplier is the same as a banite rock but, levelling benefits for banite do not apply. Concentrated gold deposits have 750 durability (compared to banite's 1,700) and grant five gold ore instead of one (working out to 150 durability per gold ore). This makes concentrate gold deposits the best source for gold ore.
  • Sandstone (2kg).png Concentrated sandstone rocks are level 50 versions of regular sandstone rocks. Their experience multiplier is the same as a Runite rock. They give sandstone at the same rate as regular sandstone rocks but also give Menaphos reputation.
  • Red sandstone.png Crystal-flecked sandstone (ore).png Both red sandstone rocks and crystal-flecked sandstone rocks are among the only rocks that still deplete. When mining these rocks with the resourceful aura active, players retain a 10% chance to give an additional sandstone which does not contribute towards the daily limit.
  • Uncut sapphire.png Uncut emerald.png Uncut ruby.png Uncut diamond.png Various gem rocks have now been organised into five tiers requiring 1, 20, 40, 60 and 75 mining respectively. The higher tier gem rocks drop better gems.
  • Alaea sea salt.png Alaea crablets give better active experience than animica, but give salt rather than valuable ores. This gives them a niche as the highest raw experience method. They cannot generate rockertunities.
  • Crystal fragment.png Solid crystals require 75 Mining to mine. Their experience multiplier is the same as a Necrite rock, but levelling benefits for Necrite do not apply. The drop rate is balanced to give around 1 crystal fragment per tick with 75 Mining. At 75 Mining, with a rate of 6,000 fragments (2,000 crystals) it would take 2.5 hours for a full set of attuned crystal armour (5,000 crystals).
  • Corrupted ore.png Seren stones Seren stones cannot generate rockertunities. Their niche is entirely AFK. Corrupted ore is awarded.
  • Rune essence.png Pure essence.png Pure and rune essence have no major changes.

Pickaxes[edit | edit source]

A player's Mining level determines the type of pickaxe they can mine with, while their Attack level determines whether they can wield it or not.

If multiple pickaxes are carried then the order of use is Equipped > Inventory > Tool belt. Any non-augmented pickaxe can be put in the toolbelt. Any pickaxe except Bronze pickaxes can be removed from the toolbelt directly without having to speak to Doc. This allows pickaxes to be swapped and upgraded. Placing a new pickaxe into the toolbelt removes the old one into your inventory. Removing a pickaxe from the toolbelt leaves a default Bronze pickaxe in its place - this is why Bronze pickaxes cannot be removed, to prevent a source of infinite pickaxes.

Every pickaxe has two stats, one named penetration, and a damage stat.

Penetration[edit | edit source]

Penetration is a stat that is checked against the hardness of the rock attempting to be mined. If the pickaxes' penetration stat is less than the hardness level of the rock the damage done toward an ore is reduced. This also reduces the amount of experience gained per swing.

Damage (stat)[edit | edit source]

Damage is a stat that determines the base damage a pickaxe can do. It is generally a range. As the level of a pickaxe increases, so does the damage stat.

For example: a bronze pickaxe has a minimum damage stat of 3 and a maxium damage stat of 7. While a Dragon pickaxe has a minimum damage stat of 33 and a maximum damage stat of 93.

As a general rule the better the pickaxe, the more effective it is as a mining tool. It is highly recommended to use the best possible pickaxe for your mining level.

Table of pickaxes[edit | edit source]

The following table of pickaxes has been sorted from least effective (Bronze) to most effective (Earth and Song).

Mining LevelPickaxeDamagePenetrationAugmentable
MinAverageMax
1Bronze pickaxe.png Bronze3570
10Iron pickaxe.png Iron510155
10Iron pickaxe.png Iron+1611165
20Steel pickaxe.png Steel10203015
30Steel pickaxe.png Steel+111213115
30Mithril pickaxe.png Mithril15304530
30Mithril pickaxe.png Mithril+116314630
30Mithril pickaxe.png Mithril+217324730
40Adamant pickaxe.png Adamant20406050
40Adamant pickaxe.png Adamant+121416150
40Adamant pickaxe.png Adamant+222426250
50Rune pickaxe.png Rune25507575
50Rune pickaxe.png Rune+126517675
50Rune pickaxe.png Rune+227527775
50Rune pickaxe.png Rune+328537875
50Inferno adze.png Inferno Adze28537875
60Orikalkum pickaxe.png Orikalkum306090105
60Orikalkum pickaxe.png Orikalkum+1316191105
60Orikalkum pickaxe.png Orikalkum+2326292105
60Orikalkum pickaxe + 3.png Orikalkum+3336393105
60Dragon pickaxe.png Dragon336393105Yes check.svg
70Necronium pickaxe.png Necronium3570105140
70Necronium pickaxe.png Necronium+13671106140
70Necronium pickaxe.png Necronium+23772107140
70Necronium pickaxe.png Necronium+33873108140
70Necronium pickaxe + 4.png Necronium+43974109140
70Crystal pickaxe.png Crystal3974109140Yes check.svg
80Bane pickaxe.png Bane4080120185
80Bane pickaxe.png Bane+14181121185
80Bane pickaxe.png Bane+24282122185
80Bane pickaxe.png Bane+34383123185
80Bane pickaxe + 4.png Bane+44484124185
80Imcando pickaxe.png Imcando4484124185Yes check.svg
90Elder rune pickaxe.png Elder Rune4590135235
90Elder rune pickaxe.png Elder Rune+14691136235
90Elder rune pickaxe.png Elder Rune+24792137235
90Elder rune pickaxe.png Elder Rune+34893138235
90Elder rune pickaxe.png Elder Rune+44994139235
90Elder rune pickaxe + 5.png Elder Rune+55095140235
90Pickaxe of earth and song.png Earth and Song5095140235Yes check.svg


Special pickaxes[edit | edit source]

Only four pickaxes are augmentable, therefore making them "special". Augmentation is done with the Invention skill.

Augmented pickaxes cannot be placed on the toolbelt, although their non-augmented versions can. Since the special pickaxes are identical in stats to one of the smithable pickaxes, it is only worth making a special pickaxe if you intend on augmenting it.

Level Image Name Creation Method
60 Dragon pickaxe.png Dragon Pickaxe
70 Crystal pickaxe.png Crystal pickaxe
80 Imcando pickaxe.png Imcando pickaxe
90 Pickaxe of earth and song.png Pickaxe of Earth and Song

Where to get a pickaxe[edit | edit source]

Pickaxes are sold by Nurmof in the Dwarven Mine, Tati in Keldagrim, Bob (smith) in Lumbridge, or on the Grand Exchange. Pickaxes and their upgraded versions can be forged at the appropriate Smithing level for players who have completed the Perils of Ice Mountain quest.

Damage (mechanic)[edit | edit source]

Damage is the mechanic that allows the progress toward gaining an ore while mining. The players damage progress is checked against the durability of the rock they are mining. There is a progress bar above the player's head. Once this is filled, the player receives an ore. Each swing deals damage based on the players Mining level, Strength level, and the pickaxe used. Swings occur every 4 ticks (2.4s). If a player's Strength level vastly out-levels their Mining level, it has a huge impact on their damage per swing and in turn their ore and experience per hour.

Damage progress is stored even if a player stops mining or switches rocks, provided they resume mining the same type of rock.

Basic Equation[edit | edit source]

The basic calculation for damage is:

Equation notes[edit | edit source]
  • is only added to the equation when the players pickaxe is a lower tier than the rock they are attempting to mine. This results in a negative number, reducing the damage per swing.
For example:
Levels Pickaxe Rock Damage per Swing
30 Mining
30 Strength
Bronze pickaxe:

3-7 damage
0 penetration

Mithril ore rock:

240 durability
30 hardness

6 - 10
Mithril pickaxe:

15-45 damage
30 penetration

48 - 78
  • is only added to the equation if the swing deals a critical hit. By default the player has a 10% chance on each swing to deal a critical strike, this is increased as the players mining level increases.
  • Because Strength is rounded down in the calculation (i.e. levels 90-99 will all be +9), Strength level only has an impact every 10 levels.
  • Visible and invisible boosts for Mining and Strength apply when determining damage per swing.
For example: The player has boosted their strength from level 38 to level 41. The equation will take into account a level + 4 bonus to the damage per swing as opposed to a + 3 bonus.
  • Any excess damage carries over to your progress to another ore. However, 100% of the durability of a rock cannot be dealt in a single swing. Anything above 100% be capped at 100%.
For example:
Levels Pickaxe Rock Damage per Swing Excess damage Actual damage per swing
30 Mining
30 Strength
Mithril pickaxe:

15-45 damage
30 penetration

Copper ore rocks:

40 durability
0 hardness

48 - 78 8 - 38 40 - 40[1]
  1. ^ This would guarantee an ore every swing.

Stamina[edit | edit source]

At level 15 Mining, players unlock the Stamina mechanic, with a base of 100 stamina. Following every swing, 10 stamina is drained and refills completely whenever a rock is clicked. Stamina is a multiplier to the damage formula. The stamina bar can be enabled by opening the Settings, then navigating to Gameplay -> Skills -> Mining (it should be the top option). Mining levelling benefits increase the stamina pool by 10 at certain levels (meaning it takes more swings to deplete). However, if intending to be fully active or completely AFK, the stamina pool size is irrelevant. The stamina pool size is only pertinent to players seeking to occasionally click in an 'Ithell Harps' fashion (semi-active damage per swing). The stamina pool's size only has a marginal increase in damage per hour (roughly 5%) for semi-active players.

Mining Level Stamina Pool Size Swings to Deplete Seconds to Deplete
15-18 100 10 24
19-25 110 11 26.4
26-27 120 12 28.8
28-32 130 13 31.2
33-45 140 14 33.6
46-56 150 15 36
57-66 160 16 38.4
67-70 170 17 40.8
71-87 180 18 43.2
88+ 190 19 45.6

Stamina gives a % increase to damage per swing based on how much Stamina the player currently has. No bonus damage can be dealt in this way for levels 1-14. Visual cues in the form of sparks from the rock on every swing indicate where on the table players lay. Alternatively, players can toggle their stamina bar in the game interaction settings.

A player with 1 - 99% stamina
A player with full stamina
Stamina Bonus Intensity Spark Colour
Full Stamina +25% Damage Per Swing Active Green
1-99% Stamina +12.5% Damage Per Swing Semi Active White
Empty Stamina No Bonus Completely AFK None

In order to sustain a full stamina bar, the rock must be clicked at least every 4 ticks (2.4s).

Mining levelling benefits increases the stamina pool by 10 at certain levels (meaning it takes more swings before it depletes). However, if intending to be fully active or completely AFK the stamina pool size is irrelevant.

With a stamina bonus the player can gain more experience per swing and more quickly mine an ore.

Example[edit | edit source]

Mining and Strength Level Pickaxe Rock Stamina Damage per Swing
30 Mithril pickaxe:

15-45 damage
30 penetration

Mithril ore rock:

240 durability
30 hardness

Full Stamina (Active):

+25%

60 - 97.5
1-99% Stamina (Semi-Active):

+12.5%

54 - 87.75
Empty Stamina (Completely AFK):

No Bonus

48 - 78

Rockertunities[edit | edit source]

An orichalcite ore rock with a rockertunity.

While mining can be done completely AFK, rockertunities are a mechanic to keep players engaged while mining. Every time a player swings their pickaxe, there is a chance that a nearby rock of the same type will become a 'Rockertunity'. Rockertunities cannot spawn on the rock currently being mined. Clicking the highlighted rock rewards the player extra damage (and by extension experience) for one swing. Since damage progress doesn't reset for changing to other rocks of the same type, participating in rockertunities can increase experience and ore per hour.

Notes:

  • Rockertunities also have the potential to deal a critical hit, further increasing the damage/experience gained.
  • Rockertunities are exclusive to each player.
  • Rockertunities always spawn within 8 squares of the rock being mined.
  • Rockertunities don't work with the java client. Just works with NXT client [Bug].

Rockertunity Multiplier[edit | edit source]

While the base multiplier for rockertunities is , higher Mining levels can raise the multiplier up to seven (dependent on rock). The values on the table below correspond to the Mining level required for the increased multipliers.

This levelling benefit only applies to core rocks, so, when mining non-core rocks such as concentrated coal or gold, the rockertunitiy multiplier will always be four.

The Magic golem outfit can increase this to .

Rock Rockertunity Multiplier
x4 x5 x6
Copper ore.png: Inventory image of Copper oreCopper ore and Tin ore.png: Inventory image of Tin oreTin ore 1 6 -
Iron ore.png: Inventory image of Iron oreIron ore 10 14 -
Coal.png: Inventory image of CoalCoal 20 21 -
Mithril ore.png: Inventory image of Mithril oreMithril ore 30 38 -
Adamantite ore.png: Inventory image of Adamantite oreAdamantite ore and Luminite.png: Inventory image of LuminiteLuminite 40 47 -
Runite ore.png: Inventory image of Runite oreRunite ore 50 54 -
Orichalcite ore.png: Inventory image of Orichalcite oreOrichalcite ore and Drakolith.png: Inventory image of DrakolithDrakolith 60 68 -
Necrite ore.png: Inventory image of Necrite oreNecrite ore and Phasmatite.png: Inventory image of PhasmatitePhasmatite 70 73 77
Banite ore.png: Inventory image of Banite oreBanite ore 80 89 -
Light animica.png: Inventory image of Light animicaLight animica and Dark animica.png: Inventory image of Dark animicaDark animica 90 94 96

Example[edit | edit source]

Mining and Strength Level Pickaxe Rock Stamina Rockertunity Damage per Swing
30 Mithril pickaxe:

15-45 damage
30 penetration

Mithril ore rock:

240 durability
30 hardness

Full Stamina (Active):

Yes 78 - 126.75
1-99% Stamina (Semi-Active):

70.2 - 114.075
Empty Stamina (Completely AFK):

62.4 - 101.4

Critical Swing[edit | edit source]

Critical swing!

Critical swings deal extra damage for that swing. If a critical swing is rolled on a rockertunity swing, the rockertunity multiplier also applies to the additional damage from the critical effect. A popup occurs whenever a critical swing is hit: Critical Swing popup.png

Loading...
Critical Swing ChanceCritical Swing Bonus


Critical Swing Chance
By default the player has a 10% chance on each swing to deal a critical swing. The values in the table below correspond to the Mining level required to achieve higher critical swing chances, specific to each rock. This levelling benefit only applies to core rocks, so, when mining non-core rocks such as concentrated coal or gold, the base 10% critical hit chance will be used. Needs moving out of userspace

RockCritical hit chance
10%20%30%
Copper oreTin ore Copper; Tin128
Iron ore Iron1012-
Coal Coal2025-
Mithril ore Mithril303135
Adamantite ore Adamantite404548
Luminite Luminite404548
Runite ore Runite505658
Orichalcite ore.pngDrakolith Orichalcite; Drakolith6064-
Necrite orePhasmatite Necrite; Phasmatite7075-
Coal Concentrated Coal7025-
Banite ore Banite8081-
Light animicaDark animica Light animica; Dark animica909197


Critical Swing Bonus
The critical swing bonus is the amount of extra damage gained for that swing. The critical swing bonus is not per rock and continues to accumulate as the player gains Mining levels - this also means that this bonus applies to non-core rocks.

Mining levelCritical hit bonus
15
310
915
1120
1725
2230
2435
3240
3445
4350
4455
5260
5965
6170
6575
7480
7985
8490
8795
99100

Experience[edit | edit source]

Although not every swing grants an ore, every swing grants experience based on the damage rolled for that swing. The damage made on that swing is multiplied by the experience multiplier of that rock and a global to determine the base experience drop.

Formula[edit | edit source]

Rock experience modifiers[edit | edit source]

Ore Rock XP Multiplier
Copper ore.png: Inventory image of Copper oreCopper ore and Tin ore.png: Inventory image of Tin oreTin ore 0.66
Iron ore.png: Inventory image of Iron oreIron ore 0.68
Coal.png: Inventory image of CoalCoal 0.70
Mithril ore.png: Inventory image of Mithril oreMithril ore 0.72
Adamantite ore.png: Inventory image of Adamantite oreAdamantite ore and Luminite.png: Inventory image of LuminiteLuminite 0.74
Runite ore.png: Inventory image of Runite oreRunite ore 0.76
Orichalcite ore.png: Inventory image of Orichalcite oreOrichalcite ore and Drakolith.png: Inventory image of DrakolithDrakolith 0.78
Necrite ore.png: Inventory image of Necrite oreNecrite ore and Phasmatite.png: Inventory image of PhasmatitePhasmatite 0.80
Banite ore.png: Inventory image of Banite oreBanite ore 0.82
Light animica.png: Inventory image of Light animicaLight animica and Dark animica.png: Inventory image of Dark animicaDark animica 0.84

Examples[edit | edit source]

For example:

The experience calculations assume the damage from the above rockertunity table.

Mining and Strength Level Pickaxe Rock Rock experience modifier Stamina Experience per Swing Average Experience per hour
30 Mithril pickaxe:

15-45 damage
30 penetration

Mithril ore rock:

240 durability
30 hardness

Full Stamina (Active):

22.4 - 36.5 44,175
1-99% Stamina (Semi-Active):

20.2 - 32.8 39,750
Empty Stamina (Completely AFK):

17.9 - 29.2 35,325

Double Ore Chance[edit | edit source]

The values in the table below correspond to the Mining level required to obtain a chance to obtain double ore, specific to each rock. This levelling benefit only applies to core rocks, so, when mining non-core rocks, the base chance of 0% will be used.

Rock Double Ore Chance
0% 5% 10%
Copper ore.png: Inventory image of Copper oreCopper ore and Tin ore.png: Inventory image of Tin oreTin ore 1 4 5
Iron ore.png: Inventory image of Iron oreIron ore 10 13
Coal.png: Inventory image of CoalCoal 20 27
Mithril ore.png: Inventory image of Mithril oreMithril ore 30 36
Adamantite ore.png: Inventory image of Adamantite oreAdamantite ore and Luminite.png: Inventory image of LuminiteLuminite 40 49
Runite ore.png: Inventory image of Runite oreRunite ore 50 53
Orichalcite ore.png: Inventory image of Orichalcite oreOrichalcite ore and Drakolith.png: Inventory image of DrakolithDrakolith 60 62
Necrite ore.png: Inventory image of Necrite oreNecrite ore and Phasmatite.png: Inventory image of PhasmatitePhasmatite 70 76
Banite ore.png: Inventory image of Banite oreBanite ore 80 82 86
Light animica.png: Inventory image of Light animicaLight animica and Dark animica.png: Inventory image of Dark animicaDark animica 90 92 98

Items found while mining[edit | edit source]

Geodes[edit | edit source]

A geode is a rare item obtained sometimes when Mining which contains gems or other items. Geodes are stackable with the same type of geode, bankable, and untradeable. By default a player has a 5% chance to get a geode each time they get a piece of ore when mining. Levelling benefits can increase this for core rocks, the base chance of 5% will be used for non-core rocks. There are three different types of geodes. The type of geode you get is based on the level requirement of the rock, for example regular coal yields Sedimentary geodes, whilst concentrated coal yields Igneous geodes due to their higher level requirement to mine them.

Rock Geode Type Geode Chance
5% 10% 15%
Copper ore.png: Inventory image of Copper oreCopper ore and Tin ore.png: Inventory image of Tin oreTin ore Sedimentary 1 N/A N/A
Iron ore.png: Inventory image of Iron oreIron ore Sedimentary 10 16 N/A
Coal.png: Inventory image of CoalCoal Sedimentary 20 23 N/A
Mithril ore.png: Inventory image of Mithril oreMithril ore Sedimentary 30 39 N/A
Adamantite ore.png: Inventory image of Adamantite oreAdamantite ore and Luminite.png: Inventory image of LuminiteLuminite Sedimentary 40 42 N/A
Runite ore.png: Inventory image of Runite oreRunite ore Sedimentary 50 51 N/A
Orichalcite ore.png: Inventory image of Orichalcite oreOrichalcite ore and Drakolith.png: Inventory image of DrakolithDrakolith Igneous 60 63 69
Necrite ore.png: Inventory image of Necrite oreNecrite ore and Phasmatite.png: Inventory image of PhasmatitePhasmatite Igneous 70 78 N/A
Banite ore.png: Inventory image of Banite oreBanite ore Igneous 80 83 N/A
Light animica.png: Inventory image of Light animicaLight animica and Dark animica.png: Inventory image of Dark animicaDark animica Igneous 90 93 N/A

Sedimentary geode drop list[edit | edit source]

ItemChanceGE Price
Uncut opal.png Uncut opal20%117
Uncut jade.png Uncut jade12.5%187
Uncut red topaz.png Uncut red topaz7.5%289
Uncut sapphire.png Uncut sapphire5%240
Uncut emerald.png Uncut emerald2.5%674
Uncut ruby.png Uncut ruby1.5%980
Uncut diamond.png Uncut diamond1%2,312
Spirit shards.png Spirit shards50%23
Average Value146

Igneous geode drop list[edit | edit source]

ItemChanceGE Price
Uncut opal.png Uncut opal5%117
Uncut jade.png Uncut jade6%187
Uncut red topaz.png Uncut red topaz7%289
Uncut sapphire.png Uncut sapphire8%240
Uncut emerald.png Uncut emerald9%674
Uncut ruby.png Uncut ruby8%980
Uncut diamond.png Uncut diamond5%2,312
Uncut dragonstone.png Uncut dragonstone2%10,636
Spirit shards.png Spirit shards50%23
Average Value535

Metamorphic geode drop list[edit | edit source]

ItemQuantityValue
Uncut onyx.png Uncut onyx11,418,038
Onyx dust.png Onyx dust5-1566,670 - 200,010
Crystal triskelion fragment 1.png Crystal triskelion fragment1Not Sold
Dragon full helm.png Dragon equipment111,633 - 1,212,956
Concentrated alloy bar.png Concentrated alloy bar1-1029,884 - 298,840
Enriched alloy bar.png Enriched alloy bar1148,311
Sealed clue scroll (elite).png Sealed clue scroll (elite)1Not Sold
Ancient effigy.png Ancient effigy1Travelling merchant.png 1,000,000
Anima crystal.png Anima crystal1Travelling merchant.png 150,000
Corrupted ore.png Corrupted ore100-300Not Sold
First Age coin.png First Age coin1High Level Alchemy icon.png 1,000,000
Hydrix bolt tips 5.png Hydrix bolt tips25-50240,025 - 480,050
Banite stone spirit.png Banite stone spirit25-7561,025 - 183,075
Dark animica stone spirit.png Dark animica stone spirit10-3039,770 - 119,310
Light animica stone spirit.png Light animica stone spirit10-3063,120 - 189,360
Average Value354,280

Items that assist with mining[edit | edit source]

Ore boxes[edit | edit source]

Main article: Ore box
Ore boxes

The ore box is a bankable and tradeable inventory item similar to the Large rune pouch, which allows the player to collect more ore than will fit in an inventory for longer mining sessions without banking.

The ore box is made using the Smithing skill at an anvil. Ore boxes can be upgraded to hold higher level ores, this is done at an anvil with two bars and the previous ore box. Ore boxes can store 100 of each ore up to the level of the box (i.e. an Ore Box (Steel) can store 100 Copper ore, 100 Tin ore, 100 Iron ore and 100 Coal). The Smithing level requirement is merely to forge the upgrade not to apply it - players without the level may purchase on the grand exchange. At certain Mining levels, the capacity of the ore box can be raised from 100 to 120. The values below denote the Mining level required to unlock the increase for each of the ores. A further increase of 20 (totalling 140) can be unlocked by completing the Everything Is Oresome achievement.

Notes:

  • Ore boxes can only store core ores. Gold and Silver ore can only be stored after completion of Family Crest.
  • Ore boxes have a shared inventory, so owning more than one is unnecessary.
Smithing level Name Ingredients Progress Experience Stores Up To
1 Bronze ore box.png: Inventory image of Bronze ore boxBronze ore box 2 Bronze bar.png: Inventory image of Bronze barBronze bar 200 0 Copper ore.png: Inventory image of Copper oreCopper ore and Tin ore.png: Inventory image of Tin oreTin ore
10 Iron ore box.png: Inventory image of Iron ore boxIron ore box 2 Iron bar.png: Inventory image of Iron barIron bar
Bronze ore box.png: Inventory image of Bronze ore boxBronze ore box
400 80 Iron ore.png: Inventory image of Iron oreIron ore
20 Steel ore box.png: Inventory image of Steel ore boxSteel ore box 2 Steel bar.png: Inventory image of Steel barSteel bar
Iron ore box.png: Inventory image of Iron ore boxIron ore box
600 150 Coal.png: Inventory image of CoalCoal
30 Mithril ore box.png: Inventory image of Mithril ore boxMithril ore box 2 Mithril bar.png: Inventory image of Mithril barMithril bar
Steel ore box.png: Inventory image of Steel ore boxSteel ore box
800 240 Mithril ore.png: Inventory image of Mithril oreMithril ore
40 Adamant ore box.png: Inventory image of Adamant ore boxAdamant ore box 2 Adamant bar.png: Inventory image of Adamant barAdamant bar
Mithril ore box.png: Inventory image of Mithril ore boxMithril ore box
1000 340 Adamantite ore.png: Inventory image of Adamantite oreAdamantite ore and Luminite.png: Inventory image of LuminiteLuminite
50 Rune ore box.png: Inventory image of Rune ore boxRune ore box 2 Rune bar.png: Inventory image of Rune barRune bar
Adamant ore box.png: Inventory image of Adamant ore boxAdamant ore box
1200 480 Runite ore.png: Inventory image of Runite oreRunite ore
60 Orikalkum ore box.png: Inventory image of Orikalkum ore boxOrikalkum ore box 2 Orikalkum bar.png: Inventory image of Orikalkum barOrikalkum bar
Rune ore box.png: Inventory image of Rune ore boxRune ore box
1400 700 Orichalcite ore.png: Inventory image of Orichalcite oreOrichalcite ore and Drakolith.png: Inventory image of DrakolithDrakolith
70 Necronium ore box.png: Inventory image of Necronium ore boxNecronium ore box 2 Necronium bar.png: Inventory image of Necronium barNecronium bar
Orikalkum ore box.png: Inventory image of Orikalkum ore boxOrikalkum ore box
1600 1000 Necrite ore.png: Inventory image of Necrite oreNecrite ore and Phasmatite.png: Inventory image of PhasmatitePhasmatite
80 Bane ore box.png: Inventory image of Bane ore boxBane ore box 2 Bane bar.png: Inventory image of Bane barBane bar
Necronium ore box.png: Inventory image of Necronium ore boxNecronium ore box
1800 1400 Banite ore.png: Inventory image of Banite oreBanite ore
90 Elder rune ore box.png: Inventory image of Elder rune ore boxElder rune ore box 2 Elder rune bar.png: Inventory image of Elder rune barElder rune bar
Bane ore box.png: Inventory image of Bane ore boxBane ore box
2000 2000 Light animica.png: Inventory image of Light animicaLight animica and Dark animica.png: Inventory image of Dark animicaDark animica

Bottled stone spirits[edit | edit source]

Main article: Bottled stone spirit

Bottled stone spirits are items that allow you to gain an additional ore while mining. Stone spirits appear on drop tables (including bosses, minigames, thieving, etc). When receiving ore through mining a stone spirit of that same type of ore is consumed granting an additional piece of ore (i.e. doubles the ore rate). Since each spirit only produces a single piece of ore, large numbers of them need to be carried by miners if they want continual double yields.

No additional XP is awarded for the extra ore. If more than one ore was gained (e.g. via Varrock armour) still only 1 stone spirit is consumed and 1 additional ore gained (for a total of 3; base, one from the armour, one from the stone spirit).

Mines and mining sites[edit | edit source]

Special mining areas[edit | edit source]

  • Coal truck mining site - The coal trucks are located west from Seers' Village and north from Ardougne. There are handy carts for storing coal in. The carts can store 120 at a time and it is also recommended to take a full ore box and inventory of coal when leaving as well. There is a quick way or a slow way to get to and from the coal trucks.
  • Quick Way: With 20 Agility go across the log that is on the east side of the coal trucks. The Camelot Teleport spell can also be used for quick access to the Seers' bank
  • Slow Way: To walk all the way around the lake, past the Fishing Guild, to Seers' Village.
  • Once in Seers' Village go north-west from Seers' Village bank and there are more coal trucks in the shed. Remove all the coal and bank, repeating the process until all the ore has been taken.
  • After completing the Seers' Village Tasks the coal trucks can hold up to a max of 196 coal before having to be emptied.
  • Mining Guild - It is close to a bank (just climb the ladders to the west and head north). Level 60 Mining is required to enter (level 59 miners can achieve this by drinking a dwarven stout just before entering the guild). The Artisan's Workshop is just outside the guild providing quick access to the metal bank.
  • You can save a couple of seconds while banking using the skills necklace's Mining Guild teleport, which teleports you directly in front of the stairs leading down to the mining area.
  • Crafting Guild - The Crafting Guild is a place in free play to mine gold, silver, and clay. 40 Crafting is required to enter.
  • Arzinian Mine - After completing the Between a Rock... quest, members can access the largest gold mine in the game, with large amount of gold rocks. Players must talk to Dondakan while wearing a gold helmet in order to access it. To leave the mine, simply remove the helmet or log off and log in again. The mine is very far from a bank; however, a short ways away, there is a dwarf who will deliver Gold ore to the bank for you in exchange for a 20% cut of the profits, rounded up. The fee is halved if the player is wearing a ring of charos (a).
  • Dwarven Mine resource dungeon - Requires level 15 Dungeoneering to enter. This mining location is by far the closest location to a bank/deposit box in RuneScape, and therefore it is a very favourable place to mine, especially in free to play servers.
  • Lava Flow Mine - After completing the King of the Dwarves quest, players unlock a new area to mine with a chance to receive the golden mining suit. There are a number of distractions at the mine which are effectively random events. To successfully achieve the best experience, you must make sure you are mining at the segment with a 50% lava flow which can be checked by clicking the gauges. No ore is produced here.

Distractions and diversions[edit | edit source]

Shooting Stars[edit | edit source]

Main article: Shooting Star

Shooting Stars is a repeatable Distraction and Diversion. They can be found via a telescope in a player-owned house. They fall in waves every 2 hours on all free-to-play and members worlds and will land around 2–15 minutes after each other. The stars can be from size 1 (10 Mining required) up to size 9 (90 Mining required). Bigger stars give more stardust in total, but are much harder to mine. There are nine areas in RuneScape where shooting stars will land at. You can learn more about the specific locations in the Distractions and Diversions guide. If you reach your limit of 200 stardust, you can still carry on mining the star for Mining experience. Mining stars give players stardust. 200 stardust may be exchanged for:

For an exact total of 138,494 coins.

  • 25% chance to receive double ores when mining for up to 15 minutes of in-game time. This boost will not count down while in the lobby or logged out.

There are clans that specialise in finding shooting stars. The Distractions and Diversions section of the official RuneScape forums is home to several of these clans.

Wilderness Warbands[edit | edit source]

Main article: Wilderness Warbands

Wilderness Warbands is a members-only Distraction and Diversion where the player or a group of players attempt to loot supplies and trade it in for experience. One of the possible loots are Mining supplies. Players can loot up to a maximum of 25 supplies per camp up to 3 camps daily (75 supplies). Turning the supplies to Quercus will give players experience based on how many supplies they have looted and what their current level is.

Random events[edit | edit source]

Main article: Random events

Mining boosts and bonuses[edit | edit source]

Equipment/items[edit | edit source]

Image Name Benefit
Mining cape.png or Mining master cape.png Mining cape or Mining master cape
  • +5% double ore chance. Whenever double ore is received, bonus XP equal to the level requirement to mine that rock is awarded.
Mining accumulator.png Mining accumulator
  • Gains 1% charge whenever the player gets a critical swing when Mining.
  • Upon studying the player gains 2,500 Mining experience, which destroys the accumulator.
Amulet of glory (4).png Amulet of glory Increases geode drop chance by 1%.
Ring of wealth.png Ring of wealth Doubles the chance of receiving a metamorphic geode instead of an igneous geode (2% up from 1%). Higher tier luck rings also have this effect.
Sign of the porter VI.png Sign of the porter (I) (II) (III) (IV) (V) (VI) Allows transport of ore to your bank once your inventory is full.
Plain mining urn (full).png Mining urn Will give experience once filled.
Juju mining potion (4).png Juju mining potion 10% chance to gain a stone spirit of the type of ore mined (applies every ore-receiving swing, not every swing).
Perfect juju mining potion (4).png or Perfect plus potion (6).png Perfect juju mining potion
  • 10% chance to gain a stone spirit of the type of ore mined (applies every ore-receiving swing, not every swing).
  • Whenever a stone spirit is consumed to generate an additional ore, the player's stamina bar immediately refills.
Statue collection bag.png Statue collection bag Allows you to collect strange rocks and golden rocks without them taking up inventory space.
Magic golem torso.png Magic golem outfit
Quarrymaster aura.png Quarrymaster aura Increase critical hit chance by 2/4/6/8/10% when Mining
Resourceful aura.png Resourceful aura
  • +2% geode chance when Mining.
  • 10% chance to give an additional red/crystal-flecked sandstone which does not contribute towards the daily limit.
  • 10% chance to not deplete a resource when Woodcutting.
Varrock armour 1.png Varrock armour 1
  • +4% chance of mining double ore when mining Copper, Tin, Iron, or Coal.
  • With medium New Varrock tasks finished: +8% chance of mining double ore when mining Copper, Tin, Iron, or Coal.
Varrock armour 2.png Varrock armour 2
  • +7% chance of mining double ore when mining all core rocks up to Luminite.
  • With medium New Varrock tasks finished: +14% chance of mining double ore when mining all core rocks up to Luminite.
Varrock armour 3.png Varrock armour 3
  • +9% chance of mining double ore when mining all core rocks up to Phasmatite.
  • With medium New Varrock tasks finished: +18% chance of mining double ore when mining all core rocks up to Phasmatite.
Varrock armour 4.png Varrock armour 4
  • +10% chance of mining double ore when mining all core rocks.
  • With medium New Varrock tasks finished: +20% chance of mining double ore when mining all core rocks.
Rock-crushing scrimshaw.png Rock-crushing scrimshaw Increase critical hit chance by 2% (regular scrimshaw) or 3% (superior scrimshaw) when Mining.
Gem-finding scrimshaw.png Gem-finding scrimshaw Increase geode chance by 2% (regular scrimshaw) or 3% (superior scrimshaw) when Mining.
Ring of Whispers.png Ring of Whispers Gives +3 Mining damage per swing when worn.
Collector's insignia.png Collector's insignia
  • Charged:
    • +2% geode chance
    • +10% chance for red or crystal sandstone to not deplete
  • Uncharged:
    • +1% geode chance
    • +5% chance for red or crystal sandstone to not deplete

Temporary boosts[edit | edit source]

Main article: Temporary skill boost
A player wearing a mining cape (t) and performing the skillcape emote.
  • Mining cape visibly boosts the player's Mining level by 1 when a player selects the 'boost' option that comes with the cape. However, 99 Mining is required.
  • Dwarven stout - Drinking this will raise a player's Mining and Smithing levels by 1 for a short time. Dwarven stouts can be bought in Falador one at a time, or members can buy them in bulk in Burthorpe. They are also a common drop from dwarves, and can be bought in several places in members areas, as well as brewed using the Cooking skill. There are several re-spawns in the dwarf tavern along the shortcut under White Wolf Mountain (you need to complete Fishing Contest to go there).
  • Mature dwarven stout - Members only. Drinking this will raise a player's Mining and Smithing by 2 levels for a short time. Players receive two mature dwarven stouts as a reward for completing the quest Forgettable Tale of a Drunken Dwarf, but they can also be brewed using the Cooking skill. This does not stack with ordinary dwarven stout.
  • A brown spicy stew can raise Mining temporarily by up to 5; however, it can also decrease it by up to 5.
  • Braindeath 'rum' raises Mining by one level and Strength by 3, but decreases some other stats.
  • A God banner will provide a visible, +2 boost, lasting for half an hour.
  • Desert wyrms, summoned at level 18 in Summoning will add + 1 damage per swing, while mining.
  • Void ravagers, summoned at level 34 in Summoning will add + 1 damage per swing, while mining.
  • Obsidian golems, summoned at level 73 in Summoning, will add + 7 damage per swing, while mining.
  • Lava titans summoned at level 83 in Summoning will give add + 10 damage per swing, while mining.
  • Star sprites from a Shooting Star will reward you with being able to mine 2 ores at once (25% chance), lasting for the amount of stardust you collected (200 stardust equals a 15-minute boost); it does work on runite.
  • A stoneberry can be used to temporarily boost mining by 2 levels, but will also reduce your defence level by 1. These cannot stack.

Training[edit | edit source]

See Free-to-play Mining training and Pay-to-play Mining training for details.

Achievements[edit | edit source]

Main article: Mining achievements

Skilling pet (Rocky)[edit | edit source]

Rocky chathead.png
Main article: Rocky

Like all skills, there is a skilling pet obtainable from training this skill. The pet for the Mining skill is called Rocky.

Update history[edit | edit source]

Mining was one of the skills available at RuneScape's launch on 4 January 2001. In the beginning, there was only one kind of pickaxe, just called Pickaxe which had to be used manually on the rock. It was not until 2003 that metal pickaxes were added to the game. With the large graphical update in 2004, random events were added. These included the Rock Golem, pickaxe heads falling off, and broken pickaxes. In 2006 players began to mine granite in the Desert Quarry, some of the fastest Mining experience in the game. In late 2009, the long-awaited dragon pickaxe was released as a drop from chaos dwogres, chaos dwarf hand cannoneer, and chaos dwarves (only on battlefield), all of which are located on the Chaos Dwarf Battlefield. On 10 November 2014 Crystal pickaxe was released requiring you to give Lady Ithell a dragon pickaxe and 4,000 harmonic dust to sing one for you. This made it the best pickaxe in the game until the Mining and Smithing rework of 2019, when it was replaced by the Elder rune pickaxe + 5 and the Pickaxe of earth and song.

Players used to be able to discover which ore was in a rock by right-clicking and selecting Prospect (with or without a pickaxe) which would require them to wait a few seconds before learning which ore the rock contained. However, most types of ores can now be determined by simply examining the rock. Experienced miners did not need to prospect every rock, as they recognised the colour of the rock and knew the ore it contained. However, an update made it so that simply hovering one's cursor over the rock would tell the player what ore was to be found in it, in the upper-left corner (though some rocks, like certain mineral veins, still have the "Prospect" option). After the 2019 rework, prospecting was reintroduced, now displaying the level requirement, hitpoints, hardness, and XP multiplier for the given location.

The update history project is a work-in-progress - not all updates to this topic may be covered below. See here for how to help out!
  • patch 11 March 2019 (Update):
    • The following messages now get filtered:
      • "Your backpack is full." (When mining, foraging)
      • "Your backpack is full. You can store ore in your ore box."
  • patch 4 March 2019 (Update):
    • Players will once again receive an error message when trying to mine a rock higher than their mining level, and can once again use boosts to mine rocks above their mining level.
  • patch 7 January 2019 (Update):
    • Reduced level requirement to mine iron, coal, mithril, adamant and runite to 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 respectively.
    • Adamant and runite now use luminite rather than coal as the secondary ingredient for smelting. Luminite can be mined at mining level 40.
    • Added new tiers of ore to mine. At 60, orichalcite and drakolith. At 70, necrite and phasmatite. At 80, bane ore (existing bane ore counts). At 90, light animica and dark animica.
    • All mining sites have been rearranged to include the new ores. The world map now shows what rocks are available at each mining site.
    • Mining rocks no longer deplete.
    • Every swing now gives XP, but ore is only earned after filling up the progress bar with multiple swings.
    • Rockertunities will spawn occasionally which, when clicked, result in a burst of additional XP and ore.
    • If you let yourself go AFK while mining, you will gradually slow down slightly. If you click frequently, you will stay at maximum mining speed. The difference between fastest and slowest is about 20%.
    • When mining you have a chance to gain geodes. Regular geodes contain gems, and metamorphic geodes always contain rare prizes.
    • When levelling mining, you unlock new benefits at every level. Most of these benefits apply only to that tier of rocks.
    • You can make an ore box using the smithing skill. Depending on its upgrade level, it can store up to 100 of each ore.
    • Ore and bars can be stored in the new metal bank which is accessible from any furnace, forge or anvil.
    • Your pickaxe level matters a lot - higher level pickaxes mine faster, and if you're not using a pickaxe at least as high level as the rock you're mining, you get a penalty.
    • You can combine the crystal pickaxe with the imcando pickaxe using a blast fusion hammer to make a level 90 augmentable pickaxe.
    • You can add and remove any pickaxe (except bronze and augmented) from the toolbelt.
    • All ore and bars have been replaced with consumable "stone spirits" which double ore yields when carried while mining.
    • Honed perk now increases chance for double ore when mining.
    • Refined perk now increases geode chance when mining.
    • Seren stones are largely unchanged and will remain the best AFK mining method. They still drop corrupted ore. As core ores are now more valuable, Seren stones may be less useful.
    • The coal bag has been removed and refunded.
    • The collector's insignia now increases geode chance and increases the chance for double ore when mining sandstone.
    • Varrock armour now increases the chance for double bars when smelting, for double ore when mining and for double progress when smithing. Higher levels of the armour work on higher level metals.
    • New varrock armour doubles the effectiveness of varrock armour, and allows its mining and smithing benefits to work without wearing the armour.
    • Luck enhancers (ring of wealth, etc) now increase the chance for geodes to upgrade to metamorphic geodes.
    • Quarrymaster aura now increases the chance to critically swing when mining.
    • Resourceful aura now increases the chance to find geodes when mining and increases the chance to get double ore when mining sandstone.
    • Divine location rocks have had their divination requirements lowered to match the new mining requirements. Divine luminite has been added, but higher tier divine locations have not been added at this time.
    • Juju mining potions now have a chance to give free stone spirits when mining. (Stone spirits double ore yield.) Perfect juju mining potions make mining faster when using stone spirits.
    • The mining accumulator now gains charge whenever the player gets a critical swing when mining.
    • When mining, crystallise now only works on core mining rocks. It prevents ore from dropping, and adds 20% additional mining XP as long as the player is not AFK.
    • Light form doubles the effect of crystallise from 20% to 40%.
    • Superheat form no longer automatically smelts ore when mining. Instead, it reduces the time taken to smelt bars, and increases the amount by which heat speeds up smithing.
    • Skillchompas can be used in addition to a mining pick, and increase the damage dealt by critical swings.
    • Rock-crushing scrimshaw now increases chance for a critical swing when mining.
    • Gem-finding scrimshaw now increases the chance to find geodes when mining.
    • Mining familiars now increase the damage the player deals to rocks when mining.
    • The nymph in the lava flow mine now spawns more frequently and consistently.
    • Trahaearn hour causes random level 90 animica rocks to spawn on each world, requiring worlds to be searched for a good pattern. In addition all mining has a higher chance for double ore, and smelting corrupted ore gives more XP.
    • Ithell hour now gives a chance for soft clay mined to be put straight into the bank.
    • The empty throne room is now the primary site for dark animica ore. The previous mining activity has been removed. The agility and divination activities are unchanged, except it is no longer necessary to refill the boxes at all.
    • The gemstone golem outfit now increases the chance to get a critical swing when mining, and the magic outfit makes rockertunities more effective.
    • Starfury armour how increases the chance to get a critical swing when mining Seren stones.
    • The mining skillcape now increases the chance to gain double ore, and awards bonus XP whenever double ore is gained.

Trivia[edit | edit source]

Audio options icon.png
The oldmining level-up jingle
  • On 3 July 2007, the mining animation was significantly changed. The change initially irked some players, likely because they had become accustomed to the very steady pace and sound of the prior animation. Some players believe this "nerfed" mining as the animation seems longer thus apparently increasing the time a rock is hit before an ore is yielded.
  • Early in RS classic it was possible to mine gems from rocks that you did not have the proper level to normally mine ore. This allowed a player to rapidly click on the rock and obtain gems without actually mining it. This exploit was swiftly fixed.
  • In a hidden update the mining jingle got changed.

See also[edit | edit source]