The guardian sphere is featured in the lodestone puzzle in Daemonheim while Dungeoneering. It appears when you begin the puzzle by stepping on one of the round tiles, and leaves when you step out of the tiles. While doing the puzzle, the guardian sphere will attempt to come closer to you by moving diagonally each time you move. If you go to where it is, it will warp you out of the puzzle area and you will take damage.
It makes an appearance during Salt in the Wound, where you must complete a similar puzzle to obtain the Seeker gland, required during the quest.
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